Causes of Environmental Pollution: Definition and Types – This time we will invite you to get to know pollution, starting from the type, the causes pollution environment and how to deal with it.

With the development of the current era, making the environment dirty. Dirty in question is the occurrence of pollution which is a major problem in Indonesia and even every country that exists.

What is Environmental Pollution
This pollution usually occurs due to the large amount of productivity that occurs on earth. In fact, as a social object, humans are not even aware of the dangers of this pollution.

In fact, the most important danger that can be felt is the disruption of human health.

So, what are the kinds of pollution? Is it only air pollution that comes from vehicle and factory exhaust fumes? Therefore, let's see this article to the end.

What is Environmental Pollution?

Currently, environmental pollution is a serious problem that affects many countries, not just Indonesia.

This is developing along with population growth that is too rapid, so that it requires "touching" natural resources such as water, air and land.

Pollution, in general, is the act of introducing certain substances or energy into the environment, which actually causes adverse effects on the environment, human health, human existence, and other organizations.

In this case, the environment in question is related to ecosystems in the air, land, sea and elsewhere.

According to Law No. 32 of 2009, Article 1 paragraph 14 concerning Environmental Protection and Management, says "the entry or inclusion living things, substances, energy, and or other components into the environment by human activities so that they exceed the established environmental quality standards”.

Rapid population growth and environmental pollution can happen anywhere. Chemicals and industrial waste are the main sources of pollution.

5 Kinds of Environmental Pollution

Types of Environmental Pollution
Environmental pollution can be divided into five types, including air pollution, noise pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, and radiation pollution. Here are five types of environmental pollution:

1. Air Pollution

When a foreign substance first appears in the air and then impacts its quality in a certain location, it is referred to as air pollution.

According to the Decree of the Minister of State for Population and Environment No. KEP-03/MENKLH/II/1991, air pollution is defined as the entry or inclusion of living things, substances, energy, and or other components into the air through human activities.

Or natural processes that result in a decrease in air quality which causes the air to become less polluted or is no longer able to carry out the tasks assigned to it.

Classification of Air Pollutants

Air pollution is divided into two types, as follows:

Primary Pollutants

In particular, the type of pollutant which is a by-product of a process or a chemical that is produced directly by the source of the pollutant.

Examples of these major pollutants are carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide produced during combustion, as well as sulfur dioxide produced by factories.

Secondary Pollutants

In particular, the type of pollutant that is formed when many major pollutants interact at atmosphere, such as through a photochemical reaction.

NO2 dissociation, which produces NO and O, is an illustration of this secondary pollutant.

Causes of Air Pollution

The following are the causes of air pollution:


The main contributor to air pollution, especially cars and motorcycles, is actually transportation.

In addition, there are more cars on the road today than ever before, which contributes to traffic jams.

Combustion of the hydrocarbon compounds found in petroleum used as fuel should result in the production of the components carbon dioxide and water.

However, in practice, the engine was unable to burn the hydrocarbons efficiently, which led to vehicle exhaust emit harmful compounds that exacerbate air pollution.

Incomplete combustion results gas production such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds (VOC).

These pollutants contribute to harmful air pollution, which results in the formation of ozone and brown, blue, or black haze in the atmosphere.

Ozone poses a major threat to human health because it can interfere with breathing and, over time, cause a number of more serious illnesses.

Factory or Industrial Smoke

Factory or Industrial Smoke
The increased amount of manufacturing or industrial gases seen in various places is the second major element contributing to air pollution.

Usually, chimneys are present in industrial buildings to serve as the daily collection point of combustion smoke.

However, some industrial facilities, especially those that manufacture products for the plastic, cement, aluminum, steel, and other chemical industries, emit very hazardous pollutants.

The production of organic pollutants by industrial facilities, such as carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, causes an indirect acceleration of the phenomenon greenhouse effect.

Use of Insecticides and Pesticides

Modern agricultural crops require the use of fertilizers and pesticides such as pesticides and insecticides in order to grow properly and healthily.

The use of these materials, however, actually has a detrimental effect on the environment.

Pesticides contain ammonia, or NH3, which is undoubtedly bad for the environment.

Ammonia is a substance that can pollute the air and water, and it is definitely bad for your health because it can cause bronchitis.

2. Sound Pollution (Noise)

A noise environment that exceeds a predetermined threshold value in that environment is called air pollution or noise.

The loudness level, distance, and intensity of the noise from the source all influence how noise affects human health.

High volume sounds that make the area around you noisy and unpleasant can result in sound pollution. When the sound intensity exceeds 70 decibels (dB), then the noise level occurs.

Causes of Noise Pollution

The following are the causes of environmental noise pollution:

  1. The sound of machines being used, including lawn mowers, tile mowers, and chainsaws
  2. Animal sounds
  3. TV audio at maximum volume
  4. Development project
  5. Public vehicle horn
  6. The factory is filled with the sound of machines, starting with the operation of large fans, compressors, transformers and pumps.

The following are the causes of environmental noise pollution when measured using decibe power (dB):

  1. The sound of people arguing: 80db
  2. Train engine sound: 95db
  3. Motorcycle engine: 104db
  4. Lightning sound: 120db
  5. Airplane on takeoff: 150db.

The effects that are usually felt are feelings of discomfort, lack of focus, difficulty sleeping, and the worst can cause temporary deafness.

3. Soil Pollution

Soil Pollution
In particular, it can injure living things that depend on the ground when foreign matter is added to it and cause soil quality there it goes down.

Liquid waste or leaks of industrial chemicals are usually the cause of this pollution. Chemicals, microbes, and radioactive materials are the three main categories of substances that can contaminate soil. All of these substances will damage the soil when they enter the water.

Components Causing Soil Pollution

Waste is a major contributor soil pollution, especially those from populated areas and commercial establishments such as markets.

The following components can cause soil pollution:

Domestic waste

In the form of solid or liquid waste, domestic waste usually comes from residential areas, trade locations such as markets, restaurant companies, and others.

Solid waste

This solid waste consists of inorganic materials such as plastic, ceramics, cans, and used building materials that cannot be broken down or decomposed by microorganisms.

Because these inorganic substances can last up to 300 years. This inorganic waste can prevent plant roots from penetrating the soil layer.

That prevents the soil from receiving water and in particular, the minerals meant to nourish the soil.

Liquid waste

The liquid waste can be in the form of paint, oil, faeces, detergents, or other substances which, if allowed to seep into the soil, can damage the soil water content and kill microorganisms.

This liquid waste is usually generated from the process of a production process, examples of substances include copper, lead, silver, chromium, arsenic, and boron; this is especially true in the metal processing business and other chemical industries.

Industrial waste

Industrial establishments often generate solid to liquid waste, such as sludge and slurry from processing procedures, which can also be industrial waste.

Factories that generate the largest amount of industrial waste include those that produce sugar, paper, preserve fruit, sell fish and meat, and many more.

Agricultural Waste

Agricultural waste also contributes to soil contamination, especially when urea fertilizers and pesticides, which are usually used to kill crop pests, are used.

Continuous use of these fertilizers can damage soil structure, resulting in decreased soil fertility and the inability of some types of plants to grow due to reduced soil nutrients.

Impact of Soil Pollution

The following are the impacts of soil pollution:

Impact On Health

Because plants can survive in the soil, if the soil is polluted, the plants planted will also be poisoned.

Furthermore, it goes without saying that plants will affect human health if consumed by humans.

Particularly dangerous for children are lead substances, which cause damage to the kidneys and brain.

Impact on the Ecosystem

In addition, the ecosystem is affected by soil pollution. The lowest forms of life will be affected by the chemical effects of soil contamination because their ecosystem is shaped like a pyramid.

Animals that live at the base of the pyramid will consume food containing foreign chemicals, which will eventually concentrate on animals that live at the top of the pyramid.

4. Water Pollution

Water pollution
Water pollution namely the entry of foreign objects into a water area, which reduces the quality of waters in the water area.

Changes in taste, color and smell are signs of poor water quality. This pollution issue has spread to a world scale and has the potential to kill hundreds of people quickly.

To give an example, 1,000 Indian children die from diarrheal infections every day, it is believed that 700 million people in India do not have access to a toilet.

Causes of Water Pollution

The following are the causes of water pollution:

Volcanic eruptions

As a result of the flow of water that occurs on the slopes of the mountain, the lava that erupts from a volcano usually consists of a mixture of rocks, sand and gravel.

The water flow is used by the local population, especially the displaced victims, to meet their needs once the lava "merges" into it.

Of course the water will be dangerous if it enters the human body.


One of the many natural disasters that hit Indonesia at this time rainy season is a flood.

Floods can cause water pollution, especially when the capacity of the river is insufficient due to a lot of rain. When this happens, the water spills over into nearby areas and becomes contaminated with trash.

Household waste

Household waste, especially liquid waste, is a water pollutant factor.

Diverse organic components, such as vegetable residues, fish, rice, oil, grease, and human excreta can be found in household wastewater and carried away by sewers and sewers, which then follow the flow of rivers.

In addition, the currents can even remove inorganic contaminants such as plastic, aluminum and bottles. Besides piling up, trash also clogs waterways and causes flooding.

Biological contaminants such as bacteria, fungi and germs are additional contaminants in household waste.

Sewer water usually has a dark hue and has a strong odor in metropolitan areas. The only living things found in this sewer water are bacteria and fungi.

In Indonesia, household waste contributes 60% of the total amount of waste, which is lower than industrial waste.

Catching Fish Using Poison

Many local people and fishermen continue to use tuba or potas (poison) to catch fish today.

Small fish can also be killed by poison other than adult fish. Such fishing practices deplete aquatic resources and pollute the aquatic environment.

5. Radiation Pollution

Radiation Pollution
In particular, the introduction of radioactive elements whose radiation strength is greater than the established threshold.

In addition, heat radiation that is above the ambient temperature in an environment can also contribute to radiation pollution.

Usually, radioactive dust from atomic reactor explosions and bombs is to blame for this radiation pollution.


That's a little information about the causes of environmental pollution that usually occur in Indonesia and other countries, that you need to know.

Because as the future generation, we need to take precautions from an early age so that this pollution does not become more widespread and will have an impact on our children and grandchildren later.