11 Examples of complete descriptive text with explanations, characteristics, structures, types

In reading there are at least four types of text, namely narrative text, description, argumentation and persuasion. Each text has its own purpose. If you find a text that describes something, be it a person, place, animal or object, then the text is known as a descriptive text.

What is description text?

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, the meaning of descriptive text is text that contains a description or description of something using words in a detailed and clear manner. It aims to make the reader better understand what the author meant. In addition, the reader is also made to feel as if he is participating in the atmosphere in the story.

While the definition of descriptive text according to Tarigan is a collection of writings that describe a story. The purpose of the writing is to make the readers enjoy, understand and feel what is written, from the mood, image to activity.

Keraf also gives the meaning that descriptive text is a form of discourse on an object or object that is written and presented so that it seems as if the reader can see the object for himself or the object is in front of the reader's eyes.

From the three meanings above, it can be concluded that the notion of a descriptive text is a text that describes and describes something as a whole in one word so that the reader can understand the writing and even feel what is written so that it really feels like it is in front of their own eyes.

Features of descriptive text

Descriptive text is text that is very easy to recognize compared to other types of text. This is due to some of its very prominent features, such as the following:

  • Description text describes something.
  • Something that is described, written in great detail and clearly and involves the five senses.
  • When reading a descriptive text, it is as if the reader feels what is discussed in the text.
  • Description paragraphs usually explain the characteristics of an object, starting from the shape, color, size to the characteristics of the state of the object.

Description text structure

There are three structures of descriptive text so that they become a complete and good text, as follows.

  1. Identification, meaning is a determinant of the identity of an object, person and so forth.
  2. Clarification, meaning that the arrangement must be in accordance with the system in the group and has fulfilled the established rules or norms.
  3. Description of the section, meaning that the section in the text contains descriptions of the sections in the text.

Types of descriptive text

There are at least three types of descriptive text, such as the following:

  1. Subjective description paragraph text, namely descriptive paragraph text that describes an object according to the impression that is owned by the author of the text.
  2. Spatial paragraph text, namely descriptive text that only describes objects in the form of places, objects, spaces and so on.
  3. Objective paragraph text, namely text that describes what it is according to the state of the object without adding the author's opinion.

Steps for preparing descriptive text

The steps for compiling descriptive text are almost the same as for compiling text in general, namely

  1. Forming the object to be discussed or the theme.
  2. Determine the purpose of writing.
  3. Create an outline.
  4. Looking for data - data and make observations.
  5. Breaking down the essay outline according to the topic into a complete descriptive text.

Descriptive text language rules

  1. Use nouns that match the topic you want to describe, for example my bike, my friend Lani, my dearest mother and many more.
  2. Using phrases that contain nouns, for example Lani is my childhood friend who is kind and very loving.
  3. Having adjectives to describe something, for example having two ears, Lani is a smart student.
  4. Having a transitive verb to describe an object, for example, I am wearing a blue blouse with a white skirt.
  5. Having a verb in the form of an opinion or feeling to give an opinion and describe the author's personal opinion, for example I think a dog is a royal animal, I believe that the book is expensive.
  6. Has adverbs to give additional information, for example in the yard, in the savannah, slowly.
  7. Having a figurative word, it can be a simile or a metaphor, for example, his hair is black like a night sky without stars.

Example of descriptive text about people

descriptive text about people

1. Example of descriptive text about Lionel Messi

Lionel Andres Messi Cuccittini or Leo Messi, better known as Lionel Messi, is one of the best soccer players in the world today. Messi was born on June 24, 1987 in Rosario, Argentina. He has the zodiac Cancer. This year, Lionel Messi turns 32 years old. This professional soccer player is the son of Jorge Horacio Messi and Celia Maria Cuccittini. From the beginning, Messi was a loyal member of the club that made his name, FC Barcelona. However, his skills have also made him one of the highest-paid footballers in the world, namely 40 million euros.

In club and on field, Messi serves as captain and as an attacking player. There is no need to doubt the ability to dribbling the ball during the game. So it's no wonder that Lionel Messi is nicknamed the dancer on the ball. With the jersey number 10, it describes Messi's ability to always get perfect scores, like a test at school. Indeed, during his career, Messi has brought home various achievements and trophies with FC Barcelona and his country. Some of his achievements are the Ballon d'Or, Top Scorer in FC Barcelona, European Golden Shoe. In fact, he has also broken records, such as the top scorer in one season with 50 goals, the first footballer to score five goals in just one match in the 2011/2012 season.

Lionel Messi is a soccer player with bright, white and clean skin. His round face plus his distinctive smile are the characteristics of Lionel Messi. In addition, Lionel Messi has straight, dark brown hair. He has brown eye color. He has an athletic body with a height of 170 cm and a weight of 67 kg. Lionel Messi is a player who likes the color blue. This is the reason for Messi to tattoo his right arm in blue and black. In addition, there is also a black tattoo on the left leg.

In my opinion, Lionel Messi is the most disciplined person. Especially with regard to his healthy body and exercise schedule. The proof, Lionel Messi is not a player who smokes. There's not even a smoking record of him. According to several sources, Lionel Messi is a player with blood type O positive.

2. Descriptive text about my name Mira

Hello, my name is Miranda Aria Kirana. I am often called by the name Mira. I am 10 years old and born in Pemalang, Central Java. My father is Javanese, while my mother is Manadonese. I live at Jalan Terusan Borobudur V no. 15A. Malang is the city where I live and grow now.

I'm a little chubby and tall. My hair is long and slightly curly at the bottom. My hair color is brownish black. Besides, I have brown eyes, small nose and small mouth.

I am currently wearing a white shirt with a red skirt, white socks and black shoes. Today I didn't braid my hair, but used a yellow butterfly hair clip.

I'm a talkative person, but polite and like to joke. My favorite food is burgers and my favorite drink is cola. I really like dogs. I can play a little piano and guitar.

Example of descriptive text about animals

Example of descriptive text about animals

1. Example of descriptive text about pandas

Do you know the movie called “Kung Fu Panda”? In the film, panda is described as a fat animal, likes to eat noodles, but is good at kung fu. Actually, the real panda is not like that. Panda is not an animal that is good at kung fu like in the movies.

Pandas are native animals from mainland China, specifically West and Central Chuna. This animal, which is said to be similar to a bear, actually has several differences compared to bears in general. Panda is an animal with thick white fur that covers all parts of its body. Meanwhile, black circles are in the area of the eyes, ears, nose, feet, hands and shoulders. That color makes it different from other bear species and makes it even more unique and adorable.

But as with bear species in general, pandas have large bodies, short tails, long muzzles with large noses and round ears. But the way of life of pandas and bears is very different. This is because most bears prefer salmon, while 90% pandas eat bamboo. This is what makes pandas adapt to their food. Where, pandas are equipped with strong muscles, large jaws and strong molars to crush the bamboo so that it can extract the nutrients in the bamboo. In addition, compared to bears, pandas prefer to live in trees. Despite their large bodies, pandas are excellent climbers.

2. Text description about the King of the Jungle (Lion)

Lions are animals that live in groups. These animals can easily be found on the plains of the savanna in Africa. However, sometimes lions can also be found in dense forests. In one group, consisting of one male lion with many female lions. It is the male lion who is the leader in the group and guards the lionesses and their hunting area. Meanwhile, the lioness is tasked with finding food by hunting together.

The lion is often known as the king of the jungle. How not, this animal is the most ferocious and savage animal. His big body, scary face coupled with a long and loud lion's roar make all his opponents do not move.

The weight of an adult male lion can reach 225 kg, while for a female lion up to 150 kg. Most lions can survive for 10 to 15 years in the wild. However, lions in zoos or safari parks can live up to 20 years. This is because the needs for food and shelter for lions are guaranteed.

Lions are still included in the big cat species. But compared to other types of cats in general, lions can't climb trees. The lion does look stronger and very mighty. The roar of a male lion can be useful for protecting himself and his group from enemies during a fight. In the wild, fights between male lions often occur, either to fight over the lioness or her hunting territory. Those who win will get both, while those who lose must leave the place.

3. Text description about the elephant

Elephants are one of the largest herbivorous animals, ranging from leaves, grass to fruits. Unlike most animals, elephants have skin that is almost completely hairless, elephant hair is only found on the tail. Elephants are four-legged animals and have very long, flexible trunks that are used to hold or function like hands.

Elephants are also animals that live in groups, consisting of the largest male elephant as the group leader, baby elephants and female elephants. Elephants are also animals with very good and sharp hearing. This is because their ears are also wide and large.

With these ears, elephants can hear up to a distance of tens of kilometers. Behind the elephant's ear is the softest part known as the knuckle. Knuckles are used by elephant handlers at zoos to give directions and orders to this one animal. Currently, the elephant is one of the animals whose population is decreasing, so it is no doubt that the elephant is a protected animal.

Example of descriptive text about a place

place description text

1. Descriptive text about Indonesia

Indonesia, the place where I was born and live. Being one of the countries in Southeast Asia and Oceania, Indonesia is known as an archipelago with 17 thousand islands in it. Indonesia has 35 provinces with a population of more than 200 million people, including me. As a result, Indonesia is known as the fourth most populous country in the world.

I've been here for a year, working hard for life and Indonesia. Indonesia is the best place to live, one of which is Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia where I live.

Indonesia has direct borders with Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste and Malaysia. But there is no limit to the love in my heart for Indonesia. Everyone knows that Indonesia is close to the Philippines, Singapore, Australia, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. All of them are Indonesian neighbors that I like but not as much as I like Indonesia.

With so many islands, Indonesia has various tribes, cultures and religions. Java is one of the most dominant tribes in terms of politics and the largest ethnic group in Indonesia. The sense of nationalism that exists in every blood of the Indonesian population is a unifying tool for us even though we have different ethnicities, religions, languages and races. Indonesia is a country with the largest Muslim population in the world.

Even though we are different, we must remain united, like the Indonesian motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika. Despite being one of the largest countries with the most population, Indonesia is a very rich country. Not only rich in culture, but also natural resources in it.

2. Example of descriptive text about the city of Rome

Italy has many famous cities. One of them is Rome. A city with a million history in it. When you visit Rome, you will get various experiences and visit many unexpected places. Historically, the city of Rome was discovered by two twin brothers, namely Romulus and Remus on April 21, 753 BC. This is reinforced by the legacy of agricultural settlements in the area. As the Catholic Church advanced, Rome became one of the most important cities, both in government and religion.

The city of Rome also became one of the centers in the Renaissance era. This can be seen by the streets and various old buildings. In fact, until now many buildings in Rome are still influenced by the Renaissance. Visitors can also see various works of art from that era, such as Baroque palaces, obelisks, town squares and many more.

Rome is also known for its architectural masterpieces. One of them is the Colosseum. The Colosseum is one of the largest amphitheater of its era and was built in the 70th century AD. Maybe now, the Colosseum is not completely intact, but its splendor is still very much felt.

The city of Rome today is still a busy city. A city with a million history, religion and art in it. You can see various musical performances. Every year, Rome holds a film festival. Rome is home to Cinecitta studio, the largest studio in Europe.

3. Short descriptive text about Venice

One of the famous cities in Italy is Venice. Venice is indeed an interesting city to visit. How could it not be, Venice has various histories and interesting places that are a pity to miss.

Venice was founded approximately 2000 years ago, when the Barbarians occupied various cities in Rome. Around 800 to 1000 AD, Venice became one of the most advanced cities at that time. This makes Venice has its government.

With these developments, Venice became an important sea trade route. But still threats always come. Pirates became the biggest threat at that time. But little by little the threat is reduced. This is because Venice decided to move its route to the east coast.

Hearing the city of Venice, what comes to our minds is canals. The canal is a landmark of the city of Venice. Because the canal is the main transportation route in this city. Visiting the city of Venice, you will feel the atmosphere of a city full of history and culture. Exploring every corner of the canal accompanied by the strains of songs from boat rowers is an experience that will never be forgotten.

Example of descriptive text about an object

Example of descriptive text about an object

1. Text description of Borobudur Temple

Borobudur Temple is the largest Buddhist temple in Indonesia. Borobudur Temple was built in the 9th century by the Syailendra Dynasty under the leadership of the Mataram Kingdom. Borobudur Temple, which is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia, is already famous overseas.

The architectural style of Borobudur Temple is influenced by Gupta buildings from India. Borobudur Temple was built on a 46 meter high hill and has eight floors made of natural stone.

The first to fifth floors are square in shape and surrounded by walls carved with Buddhist reliefs inside. Meanwhile, the remaining three floors have a circular shape. At the top of the Borobudur Temple there are many stupas. Where, small stupas surround the largest stupa in the middle. Each stupa has a Buddha statue inside.

To reach the top, you have to walk about 4.8 km from the entrance and pass through many steps. The architectural art of Borobudur Temple is a symbol of the universe. Borobudur Temple became a world heritage site in 1983. Apart from that, Borobudur Temple is a legacy of Indonesia's pride.

2. Descriptive text about the taj mahal

The Taj Mahal is one of the seven wonders of the world. Built in Agra by Emperor Shah Jahan to commemorate the death of his beloved wife. The Taj Mahal is the burial and final resting area of the Mimtaz Mahal. This cemetery area consists of an entrance, a large garden, a mosque on the left, a guest house on the right and several magnificent buildings around it. The complex of buildings of the Taj Mahal also extends to the Yamuna river area.

The Taj Mahal stands firmly on more than 3 hectares of land with all four corners cut off to form an imprecise octagon. The architectural design follows the Arabic concept, namely a building that stands alone, but each element complements and relates to the main building. The Taj Mahal uses the concepts of geometry and symmetry in its architectural art.

The main dome of the Taj Mahal has a diameter of 58 meters and a height of 213 meters. The dome is flanked by four towers. The four towers are very beautifully built as high as 162.5 feet. The dome in the middle is surrounded by a dome room with various panels and walls with Islamic nuances in it.

The splendor of the Taj Mahal does not end there, this building is built entirely of white marble. The beauty of the Taj Mahal does not only appear from the outside. At dawn and sunset, the Taj Mahal is so beautiful. Not to mention at night, the Taj Mahal seems to shine brightly under the moonlight. When morning comes, the Taj Mahal seems to have disappeared when viewed from across the Yamuna river because it is indeed covered in fog.

3. Example of a short description of a favorite novel

I have a favorite book. It wasn't actually a book, but a set of novels. The story inside is a magical world with dragons and my favorite mythological creatures. It was my sister who bought this novel when she went to England last year to complete her research. He knows that I really like dragons, that's why my brother bought this novel. I'm very happy to get it. I put the novel in a glass cabinet containing a collection of my other favorite novels.

My favorite collection of novels is a thick novel of four pieces. Each novel has about 500 to 600 pages. Everything is still in English, so when reading the novel sometimes I have to open the dictionary to look up the meaning of the words.

The cover of my favorite novel is made of leather. Each book has a different skin color. There are light brown, brown, yellow and red. The title is always written on the left and front of the novel. There is a special box to store all of these novels. The box is covered with green leather.

Examples of descriptive text in literary works

descriptive text in literary works

1. Jamaica Inn by Daphne Du Maurier

It was a cold, dark day at the end of November. The weather changed overnight, as the wind carried gray clouds and torrents of rain with it. Although it didn't last long, at two o'clock in the afternoon the gray winter night seemed to approach the hill and wrap it in fog.

2. The high window by Raymond Chandeller

She had permanent, slightly harsh, silver-gray hair, and large moist eyes with a sympathetic gaze.

That's an example of descriptive text that might be a reference for you.