Explanatory text example – In Indonesian lessons there are various types of text whose function is to differentiate one text from another so that Indonesian users can make certain types of text according to the structure and also the rules. Like narrative story text, for example, which is a text story or essay that describes an event based on a certain time sequence. In a narrative text the events described can be real events or just a result of imagination or fiction. While a text whose function is to tell a fact, and is not a product of imagination, one of them is called an explanatory text.
What is explanatory text?
The word explanation is taken from the English explanation which means explanation. Therefore an explanatory text is a text that explains the process of the occurrence of an event or phenomenon related to various aspects of people's lives, for example natural, social, scientific, and also cultural aspects. An example of a correct explanatory text is a text that can answer two questions well, namely "why" and "how". This is because in a phenomenon or event that occurs there is a causal relationship which is then elaborated and explained through sentences that can answer the question of why and how this event could occur.
The characteristics and structure of explanatory text
Not only having causal explanation elements, short explanatory texts also have more distinctive features and structures that distinguish them from other non-fiction texts. The characteristics of this type of text are:
- Only contain information that is in accordance with facts and real occurrences
- The facts conveyed in explanatory texts are related to science or science
- Using sequence markers such as first, second, third, or first, next, then, and so on.
Besides having the above characteristics, the example of explanatory text which will be shown below also has a special structure. The structure of the explanatory text is divided into three parts, namely the first part begins with a general statement which contains an explanation of the occurrence of an event or phenomenon. Then the second is the causal relationship, which explains why and how the event can occur, arranged from the beginning of the event to the end. And it closes with the final part, namely interpretation which can contain the essence or conclusion but is not mandatory. Here are some examples of short explanatory texts that could be your reference.
An example of an explanatory text for the natural phenomenon of an earthquake
The following is an example of an explanatory text regarding the occurrence of a natural phenomenon that is common in Indonesia, namely earthquakes. In the opening section, the definition of an earthquake is explained, then the question of why an earthquake occurs and how the process occurs is explained in the second section, namely the cause and effect section. In the closing part, the writer concludes that earthquakes only occur in certain areas, which are called rings of fire. The following is an example of explanatory text about the complete natural phenomenon of earthquakes.
Earthquake is a natural phenomenon when the shaking occurs due to the movement of the layers of earth beneath the surface. The movement of the layers of the earth's rocks causes vibrations and these vibrations are felt by humans on the surface of the earth and are called earthquakes. Earthquakes generally only occur in certain areas, for example in areas that have active volcanoes, or areas adjacent to large oceans.
According to the cause of its occurrence, there are two types of earthquakes that occur on earth, namely volcanic earthquakes and also tectonic earthquakes. Volcanic earthquakes are earthquakes caused by volcanic eruptions, while tectonic earthquakes are earthquakes that occur due to a shift in the earth's crust beneath the earth's surface, causing vibrations that can be felt up to the earth's surface. Earth is formed from several layers that experience movement at a very slow speed. Because it continues to move, occasionally the layers will experience collisions and cause tectonic earthquakes.
The vibrations of the movement of the layers of the earth cause vibration waves in all directions. Earthquakes that are felt by the inhabitants of the earth's surface have a strength that is measured on the Richter Scale unit. The level of damage that can be caused by an earthquake is influenced by factors how strong the SR is, the depth of the cause of the earthquake, the duration of the earthquake, and also the social environmental conditions around the epicenter of the earthquake. For example, if the area around the epicenter of the earthquake is densely populated, the risk of damage will certainly be higher.
There is no technology that can detect when and where an earthquake will occur, therefore an earthquake can occur at any time and is difficult to detect, especially for tectonic earthquakes. Earthquakes only occur in certain areas, for example on the border of the Pacific plate because most of the area above the plate is surrounded by volcanoes. The area above the Pacific plate is called the ring of fire and has a greater risk of earthquakes than other areas.
Example of explanatory text about volcanic eruptions
The following example of explanatory text is an explanation of the process of a volcanic eruption and also the impacts that can occur as a result of a volcanic eruption. Indonesia is included in the Pacific Ocean Ring of Fire where along the circle there are the most active volcanoes in the world, so it is only natural that Indonesia is a country with a high level of disaster vulnerability. In the example of an explanatory text about natural disasters below, readers can get information and facts about the scientific process of a volcanic eruption, told from the beginning of the eruption to the impact of a volcanic eruption which can be both negative and positive.
Indonesia has quite a number of active volcanoes when compared to other countries in the world. Several names of volcanoes in Indonesia that are still active today are Mount Anak Krakatau, Mount Toba, Mount Kerinci, Mount Tambora, Mount Merapi, and many other volcanoes, both those that have recently erupted and those that have not erupted in a long time but are still active.
Every volcano has magma deposits in its stomach, then an eruption can occur when gas from the bowels of the earth pushes the magma deposits out through the crater at the top of the mountain. Active volcanoes can be in the form of eruptions with high bursts of magma, there are also those that only launch melted magma without being accompanied by an eruption. Volcanic eruptions are one of the high-risk dangerous natural disasters in Indonesia.
Cause and effect explanation
In contrast to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions can be predicted, although the level of accuracy is of course not 100%, but it is sufficient to carry out safety procedures so that the negative impacts can be minimized. One of the signs that can be considered to identify a volcano that is about to erupt is volcanic activity, such as a change in temperature and also a significant increase in pressure at the boundaries of the earth's plates. As a result of an increase in temperature and pressure, the rock material around the plate melts which is then called incandescent lava or magma.
The formation of magma in the belly of the mountain is at a depth of about 60 to 120 km below the earth's surface. The magma that is formed then mixes with natural gas which rises more and more through the paths in the belly of the mountain. The rising air pressure, magma, and gas are blocked by a volcanic crater which is covered with various materials such as rocks and so on, therefore an eruption occurs which causes the crater to open and magma material from inside the earth comes out through the crater hole.
Volcanic eruptions that release various materials onto the earth's surface cause negative impacts as well as positive impacts. The negative impact that occurs is usually after an eruption, there will be ash rain because the magma burns all kinds of objects and materials in its path, then the ash rain spreads in all directions and can cause disruption to human life, including having an impact on health. Falling material in the form of large stones and sand is also dangerous for living things that live around the mountain. Volcano eruptions also release toxic gas, hot clouds, and pyroclastic fallout which are dangerous for human life. While the positive impact, volcanic eruptions produce tons of materials such as sand, stone and other minerals that can be of economic benefit to human life.
Volcanoes are one of the most terrible natural disasters for human life. Some of the largest volcanic eruptions ever experienced by human civilization caused thousands of casualties, even preventing sunlight from reaching the surface of the earth due to the formation of clouds that covered it and heavy rain of ash. The enormity of volcanic eruptions can even change the shape of the earth's surface such as breaking up islands and creating lakes.
Examples of explanatory text about social phenomena in society
The next example of explanatory text is about social phenomena that occur in society and has even become a concern of the world, namely regarding the impact of inappropriate waste management. The structure of the explanatory text used starts from giving an understanding of what waste is, and also the types of waste that are commonly produced by humans down to the household level. Then proceed with the consequences that can be caused by landfilling waste that is not properly processed. This social explanatory text has the aim of providing information about which types of waste can be described and which are difficult to decipher, causing the problem of prolonged piles of waste.
Garbage is an object that is no longer used for use and is usually disposed of in the trash to be collected in one place and then processed according to its needs. The types of waste that exist today are divided into two, namely organic waste and also non-organic waste. Organic waste is waste that can be decomposed easily in nature by utilizing bacteria that get their food from organic waste substances. What includes organic waste, for example, is food waste, dry leaves, animal waste, and so on. Meanwhile, inorganic waste is waste that cannot be decomposed organically, such as plastic waste, chemical waste, metal and metal waste, and so on.
Organic waste can still have benefits for the environment, for example being made into compost which can be used for plant nutrition or making arid soil loose again. Meanwhile, inorganic waste requires a more complex process in order to be decomposed, or is usually recycled into products with economic value.
Cause and effect explanation
Garbage is an inseparable part of human life. As long as humans use things to live, there will always be trash. Garbage problems can occur due to ineffective and efficient management of waste disposal. This then causes various kinds of social problems such as causing floods, landslides, including causing health problems because waste that is not managed can be a source of diseases that endanger human life. Garbage that has accumulated will reduce the quality of the water, cause an unpleasant odor, and become a breeding ground for mosquitoes which increases the risk of transmission of dengue and malaria.
Garbage that causes flooding is because heaps of garbage in the river make the depth of the river shallow so that the water holding capacity decreases, it can also close the floodgates so that the flow of water becomes obstructed and it overflows into the area around it. River water overflows cause losses in people's lives both materially and non-materially.
The habit of littering will only add to the negative impact on social issues that always create bad news. To make a change, a shared awareness is needed to protect the environment around us, the way is to treat waste in the right and long-lasting way. It can be started from small things, for example making waste in its place, processing organic waste into compost, recycling non-organic waste as much as possible so as not to add to hazardous waste in nature.
Example of a short explanatory text about the occurrence of a rainbow
In this explanatory text example, it is explained about the process of rainbow formation and also the consequences of natural processes that occur when rainbows are formed. The explanation given is a scientific explanation and is based on actual conditions. There is something unique about the structure of the explanatory text exemplified below, namely that it is not closed using interpretation as in the examples of the text above. This text is only divided into two parts, namely the general statement regarding the meaning of what a rainbow is, followed by the second part, namely the process of rainbow occurrence to answer why rainbows can be formed and how the process of their formation is.
The rainbow is a celestial phenomenon which is an optical event in the form of light with various colors parallel to each other. Not only in the sky, sometimes the colors of the rainbow also appear on certain objects that are exposed to light at a certain angle, for example on a prism object, on a fountain, or on a waterfall. The phenomenon of the occurrence of a rainbow is a natural process that is quite complex so that it produces the appearance of colors that look beautiful so that the rainbow is also often associated with something with the theme of beauty.
Cause and effect explanation
There are 4 factors that influence the formation of a rainbow, namely sunlight, water droplets, deflection of light, then color decomposition. The first process occurs when there is sunlight passing through water droplets where in these water droplets light deflection and light refraction occur which causes the white color of the water to be refracted into the colors of the rainbow that you know today. The refracted colors will then be deflected at different angles so that the resulting colors will be arranged in parallel or overlapping each other so that each rainbow color can be seen clearly one by one.
There are 7 colors produced by refraction and bending of light. Purple is the first color to be deflected, while red is the last to be deflected. Among them, although it cannot be seen clearly at a glance, there are yellow, orange, green, blue, and also the color of value. The phenomenon of the appearance of a rainbow in the sky usually appears when there is light rain that falls accompanied by the sun still shining hotly. Another factor that is no less important so that we can see the rainbow is the angle of existence of the human being who sees it must be facing away from the sun. Therefore, when playing with a prism, the colors of the rainbow can only be seen when we position the prism at a certain angle.
Example of natural explanatory text about landslide disaster
Talking about natural disasters that are common in Indonesia is endless. With high rainfall because it is a tropical country, it is not surprising that Indonesia has a high level of risk of natural disasters. During the rainy season, apart from flooding, natural disasters that are common, especially in rural areas surrounded by hills, mountains, and roads that have not been paved, are landslides. The following example of explanatory text discusses what a landslide natural disaster is, why it can happen and how it impacts the surrounding environment. The following example of causality explanatory text explains the relationship between the causes of landslides and their consequences.
Landslide is a natural disaster event that occurs due to the movement of the soil or the movement of rock masses, often also referred to as the phenomenon of the collapse of land or rocks from a certain height. Landslides have destructive power, therefore this phenomenon is included in the category of natural disasters. Landslides in Indonesia often occur during the rainy season or during an earthquake, especially in rural areas where there are still many hills and rock cliffs that collapse when there is ground movement.
Cause and effect explanation
In general, the causes of landslides are divided into two factors, namely triggering factors and driving factors. The trigger factor is the cause of the soil or rock material to move, while the driving factor is the factor that causes the condition of the material. In particular, there are several things that can cause landslides in an area. For example, if the area is arid and not overgrown with trees, then when the ground moves, nothing can hold the ground from moving, causing a landslide. Plant roots in trees and plants have an important role as soil retainers so that they are not easily eroded and slide down.
Bare soil when exposed to rain then the raindrops that fall to the ground will later experience evaporation. After the water in the soil evaporates, the former water in the soil creates cavities on the soil surface. In the following rainy season, water can then enter the soil through cavities and cause lateral movements that trigger downward landslides because they are attracted by gravity.
Landslide is a natural disaster that can cause harm to human life. Humans who live in landslide-prone areas are at risk of losing their homes, their lives can also be threatened because landslides have fast movements and can immediately bury anything and anyone under it.
Landslide is a disaster that has the risk of causing huge losses but can actually be prevented and managed. People who live in areas prone to landslides can find safer places to live. If this is not possible, it is better to plant the vacant land with trees so that their roots can become soil anchors. Be alert during the rainy season and evacuate immediately if you feel that the high ground is unsafe.
An example of an explanatory text about the social phenomenon of unemployment
The next example of explanatory text discusses a social phenomenon in Indonesia, namely unemployment. The text explains that every year, even though the presidency keeps changing, the issue of unemployment is always a topic that is discussed endlessly. Then the text tries to explain why unemployment can occur and how the high number of unemployed in Indonesia affects the country's economy. The following is an example of a short type of explanatory text but can fulfill the structural requirements of a correct explanatory text.
The issue of unemployment is a national issue that has been tried to be corrected by present and past leaders of the Indonesian state, but the figure remains high from year to year. Various kinds of programs have been launched by the government to reduce unemployment, starting from opening as many labor-intensive jobs as possible, holding training for people of productive age to improve the quality of human resources so that they can be absorbed by companies, to socializing entrepreneurial programs to regions with the hope of the community. can have creative ideas and efforts to create their own jobs. But in fact, unemployment in Indonesia is still high.
Cause and effect explanation
The reasons for the high unemployment rate in Indonesia are, firstly, there is increasing global competition where many professional foreign workers are entering Indonesia and human resources in Indonesia cannot compete with those with various special skills. Then Indonesia's economic growth is not balanced with the number of job seekers each year, the quality and qualifications of Indonesian human resources are still not evenly distributed, as well as the large number of companies that are laying off workers, and so on.
The impact of high unemployment is increasing crime rates and also increasing poverty, reducing people's purchasing power, causing a decline in the level of health. The high unemployment rate will also burden the country's economy because the social guarantees provided to people with low purchasing power are not matched by the productivity of human resources that generate state income.
The problem of unemployment will not be overcome if the chain is not cut off. What the government can do to reduce the unemployment rate is for example by improving the quality of education and socializing entrepreneurship from a young age, limiting the entry of foreign workers with more stringent requirements, encouraging industry to absorb more workers, and also supporting creative industries so that they develop more and more. Many people are interested in starting their own business.