Get to know the Indonesian Heritage of Javanese Script – Here is information about getting to know the Javanese script of Indonesian heritage, so watch this article to the end to find out more complete and clear information.

The Javanese script developed from the Brahmi script, and this script has long been used in various parts of the archipelago.

The islands of Java, Makassar, Sundanese, Malay and Sasak are among those who use this type of script, which is commonly used to write literary works in the Javanese language.

Use Javanese alphabet the first time it existed since the 17th century AD during the founding of the Islamic Mataram kingdom.

The Story of the Origin of the Javanese Script

During this time, the Hanacaraka or Carakan alphabet, which is still used today, was developed.

The Javanese script was printed in the nineteenth century AD. The Javanese script is a combination of the Abugida script and the Kawi script.

Based on the structure of each letter, representing at least two letters of the Latin alphabet. This shows that the Javanese script is a combination of the two scripts.

Ha, for example, represents the letters H and A. Compared to the word Day, both syllables are intact.

Then there is the Na script which is a combination of the letters N and A. When compared to the word Nabi, this is also one syllable.

As a result, the number of letters contained in writing an abbreviated word is compared to the procedure for writing in the Latin script form.

Like the Hindi script, the procedure for writing the original Javanese script, namely the Javanese Hanacaraka, is by hanging or lining up at the bottom.

Then, with the passage of time, changes occurred, especially in modern times when teachers teach Hanacaraka by writing characters that are above the lines.

The Story of the Origin of the Javanese Script

Many people are interested in the history of Javanese script. Actually there are several legends of the Javanese script that are still known today and are even taught in schools. The following will review some of the history of the emergence of Javanese script.

A great knight came from the land of Java. His name is Aji Saka. He has a servant completely devoted to him.

Sembada and Dora are the names of the maids. Once upon a time, Aji Saka traveled to a kingdom called Medang Kamulan, which was ruled by a king who liked to eat human flesh. Prabu Dewata Cengkar is the name of the king.

Every day, Prabu Dewata Cengkar instructed his servants and soldiers to serve human flesh as a staple food.

This made the residents uneasy, and as a result, Aji Saka took the initiative to go against the direction with his two servants.

Long story short, Aji Saka arrived at the edge of the forest and entered the Medang Kamulan area. Before entering the royal territory, Aji Saka directed a servant named Sembada to stay and look after Aji Saka's heirloom keris.

He then ordered that the keris be taken seriously and not given to anyone other than Aji Saka.

Meanwhile, Aji Saka asked Dora, his second servant, to meet King Dewata Cengkar.

Aji Saka made a deal with the king after meeting and coming face to face with him. On one condition, he agrees to be eaten by the king. The condition is that the King surrenders his territory as big as Aji Saka's turban.

Finally King agreed and agreed to these conditions. Aji Saka then asked Prabu Dewata Cengkar to measure the promised land while holding one end of the turban. Aji Saka held the other end of the turban.

Prabu Dewata Cengkar started to pull the turban, and the turban stretched. The king kept moving back and lengthening it. He began to unbutton his turban and spread it out.

When he opens the turban, his supernatural abilities reveal that they are endless.

Prabu kept walking to unfurl it. The king then arrived at the edge of the sea which was surrounded by steep and deep rock cliffs.

Javanese alphabet

Aji Saka also shook his turban, and finally the King was thrown into the middle of the sea. He eventually died because of this.

The people rejoiced and made Aji Saka king. After being king for some time, Aji Saka forgot his keris and left it to Sembada.

He also asked Dora to take the dagger. Dora finally went to get her keris and arrived at Sembada's house.

At the beginning of the meeting, they talked to each other, questioning each other's news. Then the conversation continued with Dora who asked for the heirloom keris to be given to Aji Saka.

However, Sembada remembered very well the message Aji Saka conveyed to him that he could not give the keris to anyone except Aji Saka.

Finally, Sembada refused Dora's request to hand over the keris. While Dora herself must obey the king's orders.

And finally they both do not want to give in to each other in order to maintain the trust received.

They fought and competed against each other. Because of their strength and supernatural powers, both of them died together. After that, the news of the death finally reached Aji Saka.

Due to a carelessness made by him, two of his servants had to die. He was very sorry about that. In order to honor the two servants who died protecting the trust, Aji Saka also created a line of letters and the alphabet which is currently known as the Javanese script.

Ha Na Ca Ra Ka (there are two messengers or way)

Da Ta Sa Wa La (fighting each other to maintain a mandate)

Pa Dha Ja Ya Nya (because both of them are at the same level of supernatural powers)

Ma Dha Ba Tha Nga (then both of them die as carcasses)

Javanese script does have a wide scope and is quite complicated to learn. But it must continue to be studied so that this Javanese script does not become extinct and always lives in the midst of the rich culture of the archipelago.

Teaching the Javanese script itself must also be carried out intensely so that school-age children have great attention to this script.

Javanese alphabet

In the Javanese or Hanacaraka script, there are several writing procedures. There are also several elements and other rules.

By explaining each letter and the rules, it is hoped that later it will facilitate learning or the process of understanding the procedures for writing Javanese script before then practicing writing.

Therefore, in this discussion, the basic explanation of the Javanese script will be prioritized first.

For people who are not familiar with the Javanese script, special notes are needed, such as the following review:

1. Ha represents the phonemes /a/and/ha/. If this character is at the front of a word, it will be read as /a/.

However, this rule does not apply to foreign language names or types of words other than the original Javanese.

2. Da in Latin Javanese writing is used for the part /d/ dental and pops where the position of the tongue is at the back of the base of the upper incisors then it is popped. For /d/ this is very different from Malay or Indonesian.

3. Dha in the Latin Javanese writing form is used for the d-retoflex type where the position of the tongue is with /d/ for Malay or Indonesian but with a popped sound.

4. Tha in the Latin Javanese writing form is used for t-retoflex where the position of the tongue is the same as /d/ but the pronunciation is not burdened.

For this one sound, it is very similar to someone who has a Balinese accent when pronouncing the letter "t".

Carakan script

The meaning of the Javanese script is as follows:

  1. Ha is the sacred letter wening hana which means in Indonesian that the existence of life is the will of the Most Holy God.
  2. The meaning is Nur Candra or warsitaning Candara which means hope from humans who always expect light from God.
  3. Ca is a weding copyright, dadi copyright, mandulu copyright which means a direction and purpose of the Single Maga.
  4. Ra is rasaingsun handulusih whose meaning is true love that arises from love in the heart.
  5. Ka is karsaningsun memayuhayuning bawana whose meaning is a desire that is directed to the welfare of nature.
  6. Da is dumadining Dzat kang without winangenan which means accepting this life as it is.
  7. Ta is a tatas, tutus, instillation, a point of authority which means something fundamental, totality, one vision, thoroughness in looking at life.
  8. Sa is gloomy ingsun handulu alamullah which means the formation of affection as God's love.
  9. Wa is a form of hana tan kena kirira, which means that human knowledge is limited but its implementation is unlimited.
  10. He is like handaya paseban jati, which means to live life solely to fulfill God's demands.
  11. Pa is a kang board without a Qibla, which means the essence of God which actually exists without direction.
  12. Dha is a duwur wekasane endek wiwitane which means that in order to reach the top you have to start from the bottom or from the bottom first.
  13. Ja is jumbuhing kawula lan gusti which means always trying to approach God and understand God's will.
  14. Yes is sure marang arbitrary tumindak kang dumadi whose meaning is to believe in Divine decrees and nature.
  15. It is real without eyes, understands without being ordered, which means understanding the sunnatullah or the nature of this life.
  16. Ma is madep mantep manembah maring Divine which means steady in worshiping God.
  17. Ga is a true teacher sing muruk which means learning to the teacher conscience.
  18. Ba is the true bayu kang andalani, which means aligning yourself with the movements of nature.
  19. Tha is a hammer saka intention which means that everything must grow and start with intention.
  20. Nga is gracut clothing manungso which means letting go of the personal ego in humans.

1. Character Carakan

Carakan script is the most basic type of script in learning Javanese script. If seen from the name alone, it can be understood that this type of script is for writing words.

It is important to be aware that each of these Carakan characters has a form and its partner.

The paired characters are used to turn off or eliminate the vowel forms of the previous characters.

To make it easier for you to understand this, it is important to explain the rules for pairs in the Carakan script and how to pronounce them.

This type of script is divided into several letters which are currently known as Hanacaraka.

Javanese Script Pair

For the Javanese script and its partner, it will be explained at the following opportunity. The pair itself is a special form found in the Javanese script to remove or turn off a vowel from the previous script form.

This pair of characters will be used to write syllable forms in which there are no vowels.

Examples of Using Javanese Script Pairs

An example of the use of pairs in the Javanese script is the word "mangan sega" (eat rice).

So that the sentence is not read manganasega, it is necessary to turn off or remove the letter na.

The way to get rid of the letter Na is to give a partner that is placed on the letter se. Thus, the way to read the Javanese script is "manganese sega".

examples of writing in Javanese script

2. Swara script

Swara script is a type of script used to write vowel types derived from loanwords from foreign languages so that the pronunciation becomes firmer.

Swara script

After getting to know what the Swara script is, it is important to review the Swara script's stylization because it turns out that many people are confused about the difference between the Swara script and the stylization.

Swara script

The stylization is a form of a vowel that is not independent and is used when it is in the middle of a word. While in the article will be distinguished based on how to read it.

This Swara script is also not the same as other types of scripts. It also comes with a partner.

Swara script also has several writing rules that are important to note. Here are the details:

Swara script cannot be used as a partner script

If the Swara script finds a sigegan or a consonant at the end of the previous syllable, then the sigegan must be turned off with something called pangkon.

The Swara script can be given a wignyan outfit, lizard, wulu, tribe, and so on.

3. Companion Character

It is important to note that the various letter forms contained in hanacaraka cannot meet the needs of writing a number of words originating from other countries.

As a solution to this problem, a form of peer script was made, which in this case was heavily influenced by Arabic.

This is known as the Partner character. The Partner script itself is a type of script used for writing absorption letters originally from Arabic. For example, the letters f, kh, dz and others.

This type of script is used to write consonants in foreign words that are still in their original form.

The Rekan script contained in Hanacaraka has five forms. And all have their respective partners. As for the rules of writing are also different from the others. Here are the details:

  1. Not all existing Friends characters have a partner. The partner in this script is only the Fa and nothing else
  2. Partner characters in practice can be given a partner
  3. Partner characters can also be given an endorsement like the other scripts in Hanacaraka

Example of Colleagues

By studying examples of the Rekan script, it will be easier for you to understand the correct steps for writing syllables and languages originating from other countries such as Arabic.

Example of Colleagues

This example of the Rekan script is indeed quite complicated and difficult because it is not covered in Hanacaraka.

But if you already know the examples, of course it will make it easier for you, especially those who are still beginners in understanding the Javanese script.

4. Murda script

More simply, the Murda script is a type of capital letter in the Javanese script family. This Murda script is specifically used to write the first letter of a person's name, place name, or other words that start with a capital letter.

In addition, this type of script is also used at the beginning of a sentence or the beginning of a paragraph.

Among the uses of this script are to write title names, person names, geography names, government agency names, and institutional names.

Because these words are capitalized in Indonesian, Javanese uses a special script known as the Murda script.

However, it is important to note that not all of the characters found in Hanacara have the Murda script.

There are at least eight Murda scripts. This script also has its own form of pair whose function or use is the same as the pair in the Javanese script.

Murda script example

examples of murda script 2examples of murda script

Murda script is not that difficult to write. Equipped with a separate example, this will help you learn Javanese script so that you become more proficient.

Especially when encountering various capital letters or syllables that use capital letters. As for the writing rules, the Murda script is actually almost the same as the main script in Carakan. However there are some additional rules, here are the rules:

The Murda script cannot be used as a sigeg or what is commonly known as a closing consonant for syllable types

If you find a form of the Murda script that becomes sigeg, you must write down the main script

If in one syllable or sentence there is more than one form of the Murda script, then there are two rules that can be used.

Namely by including the murda script for the leading one or by writing down all the murda characters found

5. Wilangan script

The meaning of the wilangan script or what is known as numbers is a script used to write types of numbers in Javanese script.

Wilangan script

The numbers themselves are used to represent a symbol of a number or number. The numbers here can be of various sizes, area, weight, length, monetary value, time units and so on.

Various types of writing quantities are done by enclosing the sign on the rank at the beginning and end of writing the numbers.

For writing units in a number, the units can be written in the full word form. For example, kilometers, meters, kilograms and so on.

Javanese punctuation marks

After understanding in detail about the letters and numbers in the Javanese script, we will then review the rules for writing the Javanese script itself.

Punctuation marks or pratandha in Javanese script are required for writing Javanese script. The Javanese script itself has several different sounds when spoken. It depends on each word written using the script.

For example, a can be read a in the word papat and can also be read a in the word lara. This rule also applies to the sound e, which has several sound variants in its pronunciation.

In the hanacaraka itself, there are several punctuation marks in the writing of the script. Within the software, there are four punctuation marks you need to know:

1. On the scenes

What is used in adeg-adeg is at the front of the sentence in each paragraph.

2. On the scene

On adeg

For this adeg is used to indicate a certain part of a text that needs to be considered, for this case it is almost the same as the type of brackets punctuation.

3. On the lingsa

As for the lingsa itself, it is used at the end of a sentence as an intonation sign that is still half finished. This sign is equivalent to or corresponds to a comma.

4. On the warp

Next is the warp used at the end of a sentence. This one punctuation mark is very equivalent to a full stop.

5. On the rank

This rank has several functions in it. Among these is to end a complete statement when followed by some type of sequence. In addition, it is also used for the rank that surrounds a direct passage.

Learn to Read Javanese Script

It is important to note that the Javanese script has quite a number of sounds which of course will differ in terms of pronunciation.

This is determined or depends on each word written with the script.

For example, a can be read with a in the word papat and can also be a in the word lara. Similar rules also exist in letter e.

Reading Javanese script is certainly more difficult than learning to read English. So you have to be really observant and patient during the process of practicing reading Javanese script.

Learn to Read Javanese Script

And to be fluent in the process of reading Javanese script, you have to practice reading every day as often as possible.

Reading habits will help you remember the various components in it, including punctuation and so on.

It would be nice if the process of learning to read the Javanese script is balanced with a lot of writing so that it will make the learning process easier so that it can run more smoothly.


That's a little information about the history of the emergence of the Javanese script and some of its partners, by studying this Javanese script, of course you will maintain the culture that has emerged long ago.

Thus the article about Getting to Know the Indonesian Heritage of Javanese Script and don't forget to keep visiting the Infokekinian website.

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