Computer Equipment Parts: Definition and Functions – On this occasion, we will share parts of computer equipment: Definition and functions, so watch this article until it's finished to find out more complete and clear information.

Computer hardware is part of a computer system that can be handled, viewed, and operated to carry out software instructions.

Hardware is another term for computer hardware. Hardware has an impact on the overall performance of a computer system. Here's how it works, as well as various types of computer hardware and their functions.

Computer Device Parts_ Definition and Functions

How Computer Hardware Works (Hardware)

Hardware is a non-physical part of the hardware. Firmware is a source of basic instructions for hardware to follow.

Hardware is stored on hardware in special memory chips, which can be either ROM or EEPROM.

Hardware is a short piece of software (software) that is usually written in a low-level programming language to produce basic instructions that can be used by the required hardware quickly. These basic instructions can be divided into 3 namely,

1. Input Basic Instructions

Basic input instructions are instructions that can provide information to other software, namely the operating system with the intermediary driver.

This happens when the user interacts with the hardware in question. For example typing with the keyboard, shifting the mouse, and others.

2. Process Basic Instructions

Process basic instructions are instructions that act as intermediaries for input or output processes carried out by a hardware device (not both).

The basic process instructions in question are instructions that only occur in a piece of hardware or not in the computer system as a whole.

3. Output Basic Instructions

The basic output instructions are instructions that are called by other software, namely the operating system with an intermediary driver.

This happens when there is an order to use the hardware from the user. For example playing videos with a monitor, printing documents with a printer, and so on

Types of Computer Hardware and Their Functions

The computer system consists of 5 types of hardware, namely input hardware, processing hardware, output hardware, storage hardware, and electrical hardware.

These five hardware devices are arranged in such a way as to form an integrated system to be able to input, process and output data. The following describes each of the three pieces of hardware:

1. Input Hardware

Input hardware is a type of hardware whose function is to enter data (input) into the computer system memory. The main input hardware of a computer system is the keyboard.

Mouse is a supporting input hardware (peripheral) of a computer system. Here are some examples of input hardware on a computer.

1. Keyboards

The keyboard is the main input device for a computer system which consists of buttons to operate the computer. The keyboard can be used to input data throughout the computer system.

2. Mouse

Mouse is a computer peripheral device that is used to input data in the form of cursor movements, clicks and scrolls.

The mouse originally used a ball to make cursor movements, as technology developed, light sensors were used to detect movement.

3. Scanners

Scanner is input hardware on a computer with input data in the form of a scan of a document, like a copier.

4. ROM Drives

ROM-Drive is input hardware that can read input data from digital discs in the form of CDs or DVDs. These devices are usually used to install operating systems or software.

There are several types of ROM-Drives, namely DVD-ROM and CD-ROM with R (read: read only) or RW (read: read and write: write) capabilities.

Now several types of portable computers (laptops) do not provide ROM-Drives, so the installation of the operating system is done with a bootable flash drive.

2. Process Hardware

Process hardware is a type of hardware that functions to process data or execute commands on the entered data.

The main process hardware of a computer system is the processor (CPU), VGA, sound card (sound card), and the motherboard

1. Processor (CPU)

The processor is the main process hardware which is an electronic circuit component that can execute specific logic, arithmetic, control system, and input/output (I/O) computations based on instructions ordered by the user.

Almost all processes in a computer system are carried out by the processor. The processor is also called the CPU (Central Processing Unit).

2. Mainboards

Motherboard is a hardware device in the form of a circuit board that connects every piece of hardware in a computer system and is equipped with a BIOS (Basic Input Output System) chip.

This device is also called the mainboard or mainboard. There are many ports on the motherboard to connect various hardware in a computer system.

3. VGA

VGA (Video Graphics Array) is hardware that is used to visualize data in graphical form. The rapid development of VGA supports the development of the CAD and game industry.

4. Sound card

Sound card (sound card) is a hardware device used to process data in the form of sound, both producing and recording sound.

3. Output Hardware

Output hardware is a type of hardware that functions to display or produce output from the processed data. The main output hardware of a computer system is the monitor and speakers.

1. Monitors

The monitor is an output device that is used to display the results of the processing of graphical data from VGA. The data displayed provides information in the form of a video.

2. Speakers

Speaker is an output device that is used to output sound card processing results in the form of sound.

3. Printers

Printer is an output device used to print paper.

4. Projector

A projector is an output device used to display images on a projection screen using optical elements.

4. Storage Hardware

Storage hardware is a type of hardware that functions to store user data.

There are 2 main storage hardware of a computer system are internal non-volatile storage (HDD/SSD) and volatile storage (RAM).

1. RAM

RAM (Random Access Memory) is a storage medium that is volatile (data is lost when the power is turned off) and data is accessed randomly (random).

RAM is used to store data when it is processed by the processor. Because it uses DRAM technology, the RAM data transfer process is hundreds or even thousands of times faster than a regular hard drive.

So to improve performance, the data processed by the processor will be temporarily stored in RAM.

RAM is also used for caching technology, namely storing temporary files, for example, when you first open an application, it will feel slow.

But the second time, it will feel fast. This happens because RAM has stored application data to be processed if needed, which is known as caching.


ROM (Read Only Memory) is a storage medium that is non-volatile (data is not lost when the power is turned off) and is read only. ROM is usually used for BIOS or Firmware chips.

3. Hard drive

Hard drives are non-volatile storage media (data is not lost when the power goes out) used to store operating system data and user data in the form of digital disks.

Hardisk allows to divide the storage location by partition. For example partitions for operating systems, software, games and D:\ partitions for user files such as music, videos, documents. Hard drive is also called HDD.

4. SSDs

SSD (Solid State Drive) is a non-volatile storage medium with NAND Flash technology which is used instead of HDD.

NAND Flash technology that replaces digital disks causes SSDs to be faster, more powerful and more energy efficient.

5. NVme

NVme is a non-volatile storage medium with NAND Flash technology from an SSD that uses a PCI Express port and is used instead of a regular SSD for faster performance.

This port is usually used for graphics (VGA) or sound cards, so that NVme technology can provide maximum performance from NAND Flash storage media. NVme is often used in data centers or computer servers.

5. Electrical Hardware

To work, a computer system requires a steady supply of power and voltage. Computer systems use a power supply for power management to each other hardware device.

In addition, users usually install a stavolt to stabilize the electricity that enters the computer system before it is regulated by the power supply.

1.Power supplies

Power Supply is a computer hardware that functions to convert voltage from AC to DC, so that management can be carried out to related computer systems.

2. Stavolt

Stavolt (Stabilizer voltage) is a hardware device that functions to stabilize the electric voltage.

The use of a stabilizer is intended to prevent damage to electronic devices due to traffic voltage that fluctuates significantly.

3. UPS

UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) is a hardware device that provides electricity backup, as an alternative when the power goes out.

This helps the user to shut down the computer properly as a measure to prevent data corruption during a power failure.

UPS is now usually equipped with a stabilizer system, so that the use of UPS no longer requires a stavolt. However, the price of UPS is more expensive than stavolt.


That's a little information about the meaning and function of computer hardware, and the division of computer equipment.

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