Parts of Animal Cell Structure: Definition, Characteristics, and Their Functions – Animals and plants, of course, have a different arrangement of cells. However, one thing that distinguishes each part of the structure of animal cells from plant cells is their size.

Animal cells in particular do have a size smaller than plant cell. The term "animal cell" refers to all eukaryotic cells found in animal tissues.

Animal cells differ from other eukaryotic cells, such as plant cells, in that they lack a cell wall, chloroplasts, and vacuoles which are usually smaller or absent altogether.

That Meaning Animal Cell
They also differ structurally from other eukaryotic cells as they are the structures of eukaryotic organisms.

Animal cells can take many forms because they do not have a rigid cell wall. Animal cells including human cells.

Mitochondria, centrioles, nucleus, nucleolus, chromatin, microtubules, plasma membrane, vacuoles, cytosol, nuclear envelope, golgi bodies, cytoskeleton, lysosomes and peroxisomes make up the structure of animal cells.

The information provided in the following descriptions can help us learn more about animal cells, including their definition, characteristics, structure, function, and more.

What Does an Animal Cell Mean?

Animal cells are the smallest organelles, consisting of a colloidal solution of chemicals inside a thin membrane.

These cells have various benefits, one of which is the ability to replicate independently based on division.

Carbohydrates and lipids are two substances found in cells that are important for photosynthesis as well as cell division. As is known, carbohydrates play an important role in photosynthesis.

In contrast to lipids, which include fats and oils, which function as food storage.

In addition to nucleic acids, which are very important substances for the process of protein synthesis, there are also proteins that are involved in the metabolic functions of plant and animal bodies.

Characteristics of Animal Cells

Characteristics of Animal Cells
Following are the characteristics of animal cells:

1. Not All Cells Have a Nucleus

The majority of animal cells are eukaryotic, meaning they contain a nucleus. However, not all animal cells have a nucleus.

Red blood cells, for example, do not contain a nucleus because they do not need to undergo meiosis or mitosis to reproduce.

2. Cells are Totipotent

Because animal stem cells are totipotent, they can be converted into any cell type that the animal's body requires.

3. Cells Can Repair Themselves

Cells can sustain some damage from everyday activities and then heal the damage.

Animal cells do have the function of quickly correcting any mistakes that may arise.

4. Cells Self Destruct

Self Destruct Cells
A cell can self-destruct if it is damaged or has DNA defects so that it will not affect other cells.

5. 70% Consists of Water

Animal cells contain 70% of water while the remaining 30% consists of other substances such as lipids, proteins and carbohydrates.

6. Has a small shape

Animal cells are small, often barely visible to the naked eye. You need a microscope to observe them because they are between one and one hundred micrometers in size.

Animal Cell Structure and Function Section

In general, plant and animal cells are the same. Both are based on the genetic make-up, types of enzymes, and structure of animal cells. They each have a unique type of cell, actually.

The following are the structures and functions of animal cells that we need to know:

1. Cell membranes

The cytoplasm and nucleoplasm are enclosed and surrounded by cell membrane, which is a semipermeable membrane inside the cell.

The cell membrane isolates the cell from the interstitial fluid, which is the main component of the extracellular fluid that surrounds it.

Lipoproteins, which are made of proteins and lipids, are used as the main building blocks in the manufacture of cell membranes.

A lipid bilayer makes up this membrane, with cholesterol (lipid) sandwiched between the phospholipids to keep it liquid at different temperatures.

Membrane proteins are another component of the cell membrane. These include integral membrane crossing proteins as membrane transporters and peripheral proteins.

Which are loosely associated with the outer (peripheral) side of the cell membrane and function as cell enzymes. The cell membrane regulates the flow of chemicals in and out of organelles and cells.

It is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules in this way. The cell membrane also serves as a surface on which many extracellular structures are attached.

Such as the cell wall, a carbohydrate layer known as the glycocalyx, and an intracellular network of protein fibers known as the cytoskeleton.

These processes include cell adhesion, ionic conductivity, and cell signaling. . Cell membranes can be put back together artificially in the field of synthetic biology.

The cell membrane, which serves as the outer layer of the cell, is composed of cholesterol, lipids, and lipoproteins, which are proteins.

This area plays an important role in controlling the minerals and nutrients present inside or outside the cell.

It is well recognized that these cell membrane organelles perform a number of important tasks, including controlling the entry and exit of nutrients and minerals and enveloping or protecting the cell.

Another function is to receive input from outside and where various chemical processes occur.

2. Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm Function
The area of the cell covered by the plasma membrane is called the cytoplasm. Water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals and vitamins make up the cytoplasm.

Enzymes, ions, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and other important cell molecules such as for cell metabolism are stored in the cytoplasm.

The non-nuclear part of the protoplasm in eukaryotic cells is known as the cytoplasm.

The cytosol, the fluid in which the organelles float, the cytoskeleton, many organelles and vesicles are all present in the cytoplasm.

The cytosol occupies the empty cell space left by organelles and vesicles and functions as a site for various metabolic processes and as an intermediary for the transfer of substances from outside the cell to organelles or the cell nucleus.

This cytoplasm is colloidal, where dissolved particles are transparent and their size ranges from 0.001-0.1 microns. The nucleus and other cell organelles are outside the cytoplasm, which is inside the cell.

Remember that the cytoplasm, which is a gel-like liquid, is a component of the cell. Sol (solid) phase and gel (liquid) phase are two processes that these organelles have during the form phase.

The nucleus contains a liquid cytoplasm, also known as the nucleoplasm. Since this cytoplasm is a complex colloid, it is neither liquid nor solid.

The amount of water present in the cytoplasm allows it to change shape. Basically, the cytoplasm will become mushy dense if the water content is low.

Gels become thinner when they have a high proportion of water, hence the name sol. Cell metabolism animal occurs in the cytoplasmic organelles, which also provide the cell with essential substances.

3. Endoplasmic Reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum, the thread-like organelle in the cell nucleus, appears next. All eukaryotic cells contain an endoplasmic reticulum, an organelle.

The endomembrane system includes the endoplasmic reticulum. In eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum makes up over half of the entire membrane thanks to the enormous membranous labyrinth.

The term cisternae, which is from the Latin "cisterna," meaning "box" or "coffin") refers to the network of tubules and membranous bubbles that make up the endoplasmic reticulum.

Cisternal space and cytosol are two internal spaces separated by the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

The gap between the two membranes is continuous with the cisternal space of the endoplasmic reticulum because this membrane is in close contact with the nuclear envelope.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum are two types of endoplasmic reticulum.

While the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is not connected to ribosomes, the rough endoplasmic reticulum has the capacity to do so.

Endoplasmic reticulum organelles carry out the task of transporting steroid and lipid synthesis products as well as protein synthesis functions.

The endoplasmic reticulum also serves as a location for storing phospholipids, steroids, and glycolipids apart from helping in the detoxification of harmful cells within the cell.

4. Mitochondria

Mitochondria, which are the largest organelles in terms of size as machines in the cell, are the next part of the animal cell.

This organelle has two layers of critas, namely the indented membrane. Glucose and oxygen combine in mitochondria to provide needed energy.

It goes without saying that this procedure is a component of the body's metabolic operations and cellular activity, which is why mitochondria are also known as The Power House.

Mitochondria, which refers to a single mitochondrion, is capable of converting chemical energy into various forms of energy.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), which is produced by these mitochondria, serves as a source of energy for cellular respiration, if that conclusion holds true.

5. Microfilaments

Microfilament Function
Actin filaments, a globular protein, form the dense rod-like microfilaments, or actin filaments, that make up the cell skeleton (cytoskeleton), which has a diameter of about 7 nm.

Eukaryotic cells have microfilaments. Unlike the compressive forces that microtubules maintain, the structural function of the cytoskeleton of microfilaments is to maintain tension (tensile forces).

Microfilaments often form a three-dimensional network just inside the plasma membrane by interacting with other proteins, helping to support the structure of the cell. This system creates the cortex (outer cytoplasmic layer).

Assemblages of microfilaments, tiny projections that increase the cell surface area in animal cells designed for the transport of materials across the plasma membrane, form the core of the microvilli.

Microfilaments are known for their cell mobility, especially as components of mechanisms that help muscles contract.

Throughout the muscle cell, thousands of actin filaments are arranged parallel to one another, alternating with thicker filaments made of the protein myosin.

Muscle contraction occurs when the microfilaments and myosin slide past one another, shortening the cell.

Movements elicited by microfilament activity include cytoplasmic flow and ameboid motion, in which single-cell movements of protists, fungi, and animals.

Those that use their protoplasm to flow out of the cell form a kind of pseudopods or pseudopods, then the remaining cell parts move towards the pseudopods to produce cell-in-cell movement.

Microfilaments are usually visualized under fluorescence microscopy with the help of antiactin antibodies, which are obtained from actin in animals.

Or you can also use the fluorescent analog falotoxin produced from the fungus Amanita phalloides, which often attaches to actin or ly-actin molecules.

Actin and myosin are two proteins that make up microfilaments, which are cell organelles. Microtubules and microfilaments are basically identical, but differ in size and texture.

Microfilaments are smaller in diameter and have a softer texture and function in endocytosis, endocytosis and cell motility.

6. Lysosomes

The hydrolytic enzymes are housed in membrane-bound sacs called lysosomes. Eukaryotic cells contain lysosomes, which are useful for regulating intracellular digestion in every situation.

Controlling intracellular digestion, phagocytosis-based digestion of materials, destruction of damaged cell organelles, and endocytosis-based entry of extracellular macromolecules into the cell are all functions of lysosomes.

7. Peroxisomes

Catalase is a small pocket organelle found in peroxisomes, also called microbodies.

Its function is to break down harmful peroxide (H2O2), or metabolism, which turns fat into carbohydrates. Cells in the liver and kidney organs contain this peroxisome organelle.

8. Ribosomes

Ribosome Structure
The diameter of the ribosome, which is a small cell organelle, is approximately 20 nm, and it has a thick texture.

35% ribosomal protein, also known as ribonucleoprotein, and 65% ribosomal RNA make up this organelle.

Animal cells have ribosomes, which use amino acids to convert RNA into polypeptide chains or proteins.

The site of protein synthesis, the rough endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear membrane, is where ribosomes are attached.

9. Centrioles

Eukaryotic cells have tube-shaped organelles called centrioles. By making spindle fibers, cilia, and flagella, these organelles play an important role in the process of cell division.

Furthermore, a pair of centrioles may unite to form a larger structure known as a centrosome.

10. Microtubules

Cytoplasmic microtubules are the following sets of cell organelles. Eukaryotic cells, which are long hollow cylinders, also contain microtubules.

The inner diameter of this organelle is about 12 nm, while the outer diameter is about 25 nm. Several globular protein molecules known as tubulin form microtubules.

Under certain circumstances, these organelles can come together to form a hollow cylinder when a person is unconscious. Furthermore, microtubules are rigid and cannot change shape.

According to this definition, microtubules serve as cell building, protective mechanisms, and components of cilia, flagella, and centrioles.

11. Golgi apparatus

Golgi apparatus, also referred to as Golgi apparatus, is an organelle connected with the excretory function of animal cells. Its location is specific in eukaryotic cells, including in the kidney, which are involved in excretion processes.

It has various diameters and structures such as a flattened pouch, and the membrane surrounding it. There are about 10-20 golgi bodies per animal cell.

The Golgi apparatus consists of a collection of disc-shaped sacs which branch off at the ends into tiny vascular structures.

Vessels collect and contain items for delivery to the cell surface because they are closely related to the excretory function of the cell.

Blood vessels also supply the building blocks for cell walls. A membrane in the form of tubules and vesicles forms the Golgi apparatus.

From the tubules are released tiny sacs that hold needed materials such as the enzymes that make the cell wall.

12. Nucleus

Structure and Function of the Nucleus
The smallest organelle that regulates and controls the activities of an animal cell is the nucleus. From cell division to metabolism, this process begins.

Genetic material in the form of chromosomes, which are long linear DNA molecules, is found in the nucleus.

Eukaryotic cells have these organelles, which consist of a nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, chromosomes, and nucleus, among other components.

13. Nucleolus

Part animal cell structure the latter is the nucleoulus, where the Latin term for the membrane-bound structure of the cell nucleus consisting of proteins and nucleic acids is “nucleolus”, also known as the daughter cell nucleus.

The nucleolus is where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed and put together. Electron microscopy allows visualization of the nucleolar ultrastructure, and light tagging of proteins and restoration of fluorescence after photobleaching enables organization and dynamics investigation (FRAP).

The organelle contained in the cell nucleus or nucleus is the nucleolus. Its function is to use RNA, also known as ribonucleic acid, to make proteins.

Several human diseases can be caused by nucleolar damage which requires up to 25% of the nuclear volume.

14. Nucleoplasm

Inside the cell nucleus or nucleus, the nucleoplasm has a thick texture. It creates chromosomes and has thick chromatin fibers. Moreover, the genetic information is transported by the nucleoplasm.

15. Nuclear Membrane

The main structural component of the nucleus, which houses every organelle in animal cells, is the nuclear membrane. These organelles also serve as a barrier between the cytoplasm and the nuclear area.

Nuclear pores are necessary for most of the molecules that make up the nucleus because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to all substances, both solid and liquid.


In the following, we have summarized some frequently asked questions about the structure of animal cells:

What is the Largest Part of an Animal Cell?

The largest part or unit found in animal cells is the nucleus. Where the nucleus is the largest cell organelle that contains or carries DNA genetic information and controls cellular activity and reproduction.

How Do Animal Cells Shape?

Most animal cells are round and irregular in shape, while plant cells have a fixed rectangular shape.

Why Are They Called Animal Cells?

Referred to as animal cells, because that is the general name of eukaryotic cells as a constituent of animal tissue.

Are Animal Cells and Human Cells the Same?

The answer is the same. Because animals and humans enter the kingdom animalia which have the same properties and act, and both have the same cells such as ribosomes, lysosomes, mitochondria, etc.


That's a little information about the meaning and parts of the structure of animal cells and their functions that you need to know.

And we can conclude that the animal cell is the basic functional unit that helps build the animal body and tissues.

Which on the part of the small organelles is a thin membrane and in it there is a colloidal solution.