The Process of the Occurrence of the Hydrological Cycle on Earth – Broadly speaking, the process of the hydrological cycle on earth is when all the water on the surface of the earth will evaporate, which will then evaporate into the atmosphere and turn into clouds in the sky.

Earth is one of the inner planets solar system Milkyway Galaxy. The surface of the earth consists of land and water.

When viewed from outer space, the earth looks round with lots of blue, indicating water areas.

White represents beaches, beach waves, and snow areas, green represents shady forest areas, and brown represents land used for human habitation.

Definition of the Hydrological Cycle

When viewed from a distance, the earth appears to have more water than land. This shows that the earth is rich in natural resources in the form of water, such as oceans, lakes, rivers and swamps.

Water is a very valuable natural resource on earth. Not only for humans, but also for all living things.

Because of rain, the availability of water on the earth's land can be maintained. Rain can be produced through natural mechanisms that occur in a continuous cycle.

The hydrologic cycle is a natural mechanism that regulates the distribution of water on the earth's land. To learn more about the formation of the hydrologic cycle. Check out the following reviews.

Definition of the Hydrological Cycle

One of the six biogeochemical cycles that occur on earth is the hydrologic cycle. The term hydrology comes from the Greek word Hydrologia, which means the science of water. Hydrology is the study of the distribution, quality and movement of water on earth.

The hydrologic cycle is very important for the survival of organisms on Earth. The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, is the continuous flow of water from the atmosphere to the earth and back again through condensation, precipitation, evaporation and transpiration.

The hydrologic cycle is the continuous cycle or circulation of water that begins on Earth and travels into the atmosphere before returning to Earth.

This is what makes water seem to never run out because of its circular shape and continuous process.

The availability of water on the earth's land can be maintained through this cycle, and the process of the hydrological cycle also has an impact on environmental temperature regulation, weather, rain, and the balance of the earth's ecosystem.

The heating of seawater by sunlight is essential for the continuous operation of the hydrologic cycle.

The water evaporates and then falls as precipitation in the form of rain, snow, hail, drizzle or fog.

Hydrology studies more deeply about hydrometeorology (water in gaseous form in the atmosphere), potamology (surface water flow), cryology (water in solid form such as ice and snow), geohydrology (groundwater), and limnology (surface water flowing through the ground). . tend to be more relaxed (eg lakes and reservoirs).

In addition, rainwater will seep into the ground (infiltration and percolation) or flow to surface water (run off).

Water on the surface and some subsurface water, whether flowing or stagnant, such as water in reservoirs, lakes, swamps and rivers.

Water collects and flows, eventually forming rivers that empty into the sea. Underground and surface water both flow into bodies of water on the earth's surface (oceans, lakes, and reservoirs).

The heat of the sea water is supported by sunlight because the sun is very important for the success of the hydrologic cycle, allowing it to run continuously.

And then the water evaporates, falling to earth as precipitation in the form of snow, drizzle, fog, rain, sleet, and snow, and hailstones.

In other words, the hydrosphere includes all of the water on Earth, whether it is liquid (water), solid (ice and snow), or gaseous (water vapor).

The Process of the Hydrological Cycle

A cycle must have several stages. A cycle will be formed when the stages are combined with each other.

In other words, this cycle occurs because there are stages that are interconnected and circular.

Water circulates in a cyclical pattern from the atmosphere to the earth and back to the atmosphere through condensation, precipitation, evaporation and transpiration.

The Process of the Occurrence of the Hydrological Cycle (2)

The heat energy provided by solar radiation causes water in the oceans to evaporate and form water vapor.

Some of the precipitation may evaporate back to earth or fall directly to the ground, where it is intercepted by plants before reaching the ground.

This water vapor rises to higher altitudes and condenses to form clouds. The stages of the process of the occurrence of the hydrological cycle continue to move in various stages continuously.


The hydrologic cycle begins with the evaporation of water on the earth's surface. With the help of the sun's heat, water stored in lakes, rivers, seas, dams or reservoirs turns into water vapor.

Water on the ground surface undergoes similar evaporation. Evaporation refers to this type of evaporation.

Evaporation is the process of turning liquid water into gaseous water, also known as evaporation. As a result, it can rise above the earth's atmosphere.

The greater the sun's heat (for example in the dry season), the more water evaporates and rises into the earth's atmosphere.


Water evaporates not only in water bodies and soil. Evaporation of water can also occur in the tissues of living things such as animals and plants.

This type of evaporation is referred to as transpiration. Furthermore, transpiration converts the liquid water in the tissues of living things into water vapor and transports it up into the atmosphere.

The amount of water vapor produced by transpiration, on the other hand, is generally much less and smaller than the amount of water vapor produced by evaporation.


Condensation is the change of water vapor into ice particles. When water vapor resulting from evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration and sublimation processes reaches a certain height, it will condense into very small ice particles.

This shape change is caused by the influence of very cold air temperatures at that altitude. The formed ice particles will approach each other and combine to form clouds.

The thicker and darker the clouds that form, the more ice particles stick together. The condensation process is responsible for this.


Sublimation, or the process by which water vapor rises into the Earth's atmosphere, is another step. Sumlimation is the process of turning ice at the poles or on mountain peaks into water vapor without melting it.

Sublimation is also smaller than evaporation (evaporation or transpiration), but even though it is small, it still makes a significant contribution to the amount of water vapor rising into the atmosphere, even though less water is produced.

This sublimation process is slower than evaporation and transpiration. This sublimation occurs during the long hydrologic cycle.


Advection is the movement of clouds in a horizontal plane from one point to another. So, after the ice particles form a cloud that is pitch black, the cloud can move horizontally from one point to another.

Winds and differences in air pressure cause clouds to move during the advection process. Advection is the process of moving clouds in a horizontal line as a result of wind currents or pressure differences.

This advection process allows the clouds formed during the condensation process to spread and move from the ocean atmosphere to the atmosphere on land.

However, this advection stage does not always occur in hydrological processes, and does not occur in short hydrologic cycles.

run off

The runoff stage is the next hydrological cycle process. This stage occurs when it reaches the surface of the earth. Run off is the movement of water from a high point to a low point on the earth's surface.

This water movement occurs through waterways such as lakes, ditches, estuaries, rivers, seas, and oceans. Water that has gone through the hydrologic cycle will return to the hydrosphere layer during this process.


The infiltration procedure comes next. Not all the water that is already on earth as a result of precipitation processes flows on the surface of the earth and flows.

A small amount of water will seep into the pores of the soil and eventually become groundwater. The infiltration process is the movement of water into the soil pores.

The infiltration process will gradually return groundwater to the sea. Water that has gone through the hydrological cycle will regroup into the sea after going through run-off and infiltration processes.

Over time, water will go through a new hydrologic cycle, which begins with evaporation. And those are just a few stages of the hydrologic cycle.

Kinds of Hydrological Cycle

Hydrology is a branch of science that studies all aspects of recording, surveying and mapping the state of water on the earth's surface.

The hydrological cycle, which has several stages, does not only consist of one type. There are several types of hydrologic cycle.

The long or short process of the hydrologic cycle shows this variant of the hydrologic cycle. The hydrological cycle is classified into three types based on the long and short processes, which are as follows:

Kinds of Hydrological Cycle

Short Hydrological Cycle (Short Cycle)

Short hydrologic cycle is a hydrologic cycle in which advection does not occur. The water vapor produced by the hydrological cycle will be reduced by the rain that falls in the area around the sea.

Water vapor will be lowered into the sea by rain in this cycle. The short hydrologic cycle is explained as follows:

  1. Due to the heat of the sun, seawater evaporates and turns into water vapor.
  2. Water vapor will condense and form clouds.
  3. The clouds that form will become rain at sea level.

Medium Hydrological Cycle (Medium Cycle)

In Indonesia, the moderate hydrological cycle is a common hydrological cycle. This cycle occurs when water evaporates from bodies of water (lakes, swamps, seas, and rivers), condenses into clouds, and then moves to another location due to differences in wind or pressure, dropping rain onto the ground.

Because the advection process brings the clouds that form inland, this hydrologic cycle produces rain on land. This cycle occurs in coastal areas or in tropical areas.

This moderate hydrologic cycle is briefly described below:

  1. Due to the heat of the sun, seawater evaporates and turns into water vapor.
  2. Wind causes advection of water vapor, which causes it to move towards land.
  3. Water vapor condenses into clouds and rains in the land's atmosphere.
  4. Rainwater that falls on the ground surface will flow into rivers and eventually into the sea.

Long Hydrological cycle (Long Cycle)

Long hydrological cycle is a hydrological cycle that occurs mainly in subtropical or mountainous areas. The long hydrologic cycle is synonymous with the moderate hydrologic cycle.

The difference is that this cycle covers such a large area that changes occur as snowfall and flows through the rivers before returning to the sea.

Clouds do not immediately turn into water in this hydrologic cycle, but instead fall as snow and form glaciers. Here is a brief overview of this long hydrologic cycle:

  1. When water is exposed to the sun's heating, it evaporates and turns into water vapour.
  2. Sublimation will occur as a result of the water vapor that is formed.
  3. Then a cloud of ice crystals forms.
  4. Advection is the process of moving clouds inland.
  5. The clouds will settle and then fall like snow.
  6. Glaciers will form as a result of the accumulation of snow.
  7. Due to the influence of air temperature, the glaciers will melt and form rivers.
  8. Glacier water will flow into rivers and then back into the sea.


That's a little information about the process of the hydrological cycle on earth, in which this hydrological cycle plays an important role in maintaining the balance of ecosystems on earth.

And through this cycle the availability of water on this earth can be maintained especially water as a renewable natural resource.

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