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National struggle for independence Indonesia post-Proclamation is not as simple as turning the palm of the hand.
This nation will face various challenges following the reading of the proclamation on August 17, 1945.
The ongoing conflict between the people of Indonesia and the Netherlands caused several difficulties for the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
Both sides prefer diplomacy to handle this issue. The Round Table Conference (KMB) was held to resolve disputes between the two countries.
This conference was held from 23 August to 2 November 1949. This conference was held in The Hague, Netherlands.
Prior to the Conference, it was known that the Netherlands and Indonesia had previously held it three times.
Linggarjati Agreement signed in 1947, Renville Agreement in 1948, and Roem Royen Agreement signed in 1949.
This seems to be motivated by one of the factors in the implementation of the conference. What is the context of the Round Table Conference? Here's how it works.
Round Table Conference Background
The failure of the Netherlands to use violence to suppress the independence of the Indonesian nation became the background for holding this conference.
The failure occurred due to criticism from the outside world. However, previously Indonesia and the Netherlands had negotiated through diplomacy.
The international world's criticism is exemplified by the resolution of the United Nations Security Council (UN) condemning the Dutch military attack on the Indonesian nation.
The United Nations also called for resolving the dispute between the two sides by means of negotiations.
After the Roem Royen Agreement was held on July 6, it was planned to hold a conference which would later be attended by figures who were still exiled in Bangka.
However, previously the Inter-Indonesian Conference had been held on 31 July to 2 August 1949 in Yogyakarta.
The conference was attended by the authorities of the United Republic of Indonesia which would later be formed. Then, the participants agreed with the principles and basic framework of the constitution.
This was what then formed Indonesian representatives on August 11, 1949 to attend the Round Table Conference in The Hague, Netherlands.
Time and Place of the Round Table Conference
As explained in some of the explanations above, this conference itself was not held in Indonesia. However, in the country of windmills, namely the Netherlands. Precisely in the city of The Hague.
The conference was held on August 23, 1949 until November 2, 1949. During implementation, of course, several things were negotiated and determined for the sake of mutual agreement.
Persons Attending the Round Table Conference
During the Round Table Conference, three parties attended. Namely from the Indonesian nation itself, the Dutch side which was represented by BFO and UNCI (United Nations Commissioner of Indonesia) as intermediaries.
For the Indonesian side, this was the result of negotiations at the Inter-Indonesian Conference held in Yogyakarta.
1. The Dutch side
During the conference, it turned out that the Dutch side was represented by BFO (Bijeenkomst voor Federaal Overleg).
The representatives from the Netherlands actually represented several countries that had been created by the Dutch in the Indonesian Archipelago.
It turned out that the representative of the BFO was known by an Indonesian, namely Sultan Hamid II who came from Pontianak. Meanwhile, the representative from the Netherlands was chaired by Mr. Var Marseveen.
2. Indonesian side
For the party from Indonesia, it turns out that it was chaired by the Vice President of Indonesia, namely Drs. Mohammad Hatta. He represented Indonesia at the Round Table Conference with 12 delegates namely:
- Drs. Mohammad Hatta
- Mr. Moh. Roem
- Prof. Dr. Mr. Supomo
- Dr. J. Leitnena
- Mr. Ali Sastroamicijojo
- Ir. Djuanda
- Dr. Sukiman
- Mr. Suyono Hadinoto
- Dr. Sumitro Djojohadikusumo
- Mr. Abdul Karim Pringgodigdo
- Colonel TB Simatupang
- Mr. Muwardi
3. UNCI parties
The UNCI party was represented by Chritchley. The purpose of the existence of UNCI (United Nations Commissioner of Indonesia) is to act as a mediator and mediator for peace disputes between Indonesia and the Netherlands.
Purpose of the Round Table Conference
Of course, in conducting a conference there are several objectives. The following are some of the objectives of holding the Round Table Conference:
Aiming to end the dispute that occurred between the Indonesian people and the Netherlands by implementing several agreements that had been made between the Republic of Indonesia and the Netherlands, especially regarding the formation of the United Indonesia State (RIS).
By achieving the agreement at the Round Table Conference, the Indonesian nation itself has been recognized as a country with full sovereignty by the Netherlands even without West Irian.
The two objectives at the conference were of course intended to resolve disputes that occurred after Indonesia's independence.
Results and Contents of the Implementation of the Round Table Conference
In practice, of course, the conference resulted in an agreement that must be obeyed by both parties. Following are the results and contents of the Round Table Conference:
- The Netherlands has recognized the sovereignty of the United States of Indonesia (RIS) as an independent country
- Recognition of sovereignty itself no later than December 30, 1949
- The status of the Province of West Irian is finalized no later than one year after the recognition of sovereignty
- The Indonesian-Dutch Union was formed to carry out a collaboration between RIS and the Netherlands which was headed by the King of the Netherlands himself
- The United Republic of Indonesia (RIS) will return Dutch property rights and provide concession rights and new permits for Dutch companies
- The United Republic of Indonesia was obliged to pay all Dutch debts since 1942
- Warships from the Netherlands in Indonesia will be withdrawn with several notes that the corverts will be handed over to the United Republic of Indonesia (RIS)
- The Dutch Royal Army in Indonesia will be withdrawn, while the Royal Dutch East Indies Army (KNIL) will be disbanded but with the condition that some of the required members will be included in the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI).
- The signing of the ratification and signing of the Round Table Conference was carried out on October 29, 1949. After that, the results of the conference were submitted to the KNIP (Central Indonesian National Committee).
After that, the KNIP held a meeting which was held from 6 to 14 December 1949 which aimed to discuss the results and contents of the KMB itself.
Then, after carrying out the KNIP meeting, it finally agreed with the contents and results of the KMB and established Soekarno as the sole candidate for president of the United States of Indonesia (RIS).
That is a bit of information about the round table conference which was held from August 23, 1949 to November 2, 1949 and the presence of this conference did have a greater influence on the progress of the Indonesian nation itself.
Perhaps, without this conference, Indonesia is still at odds with the Netherlands, especially in terms of power that was once exercised by the Dutch in Indonesia.
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