Anatomical Structure of the Human Brain and Its Functions – The brain is one of the largest organs in which each anatomical structure of the brain has a very complex function as a nervous system in humans.

So that the brain is an organ that has the responsibility to regulate thinking and the whole body, by coordinating behavior, movement and bodily functions such as heartbeat.

What is Brain

What Is Brain?

Brain is the largest and most complex organ in the human body, which works like a large computer.

Because it is able to absorb all the information that has been obtained through the senses of taste and also the body, which will then send the signal back to the body.

In general, this brain weighs about 1.5 kg and is like two fists. It also has more than 100 billion states that can communicate over trillions of connections, which are known as synapses.

This brain is on the inside of the human head, so if there is an accident or injury related to this head it can be fatal.

Starting from mild ones such as fainting or brain trauma, or the worst can result in coma and even death.

Parts of the Brain

The brain has many parts which of course have different functions but are interconnected with each other, here are the parts anatomical structure of the brain in humans:

1. Big Brain (Cerebrum)

Cerebral Big Brain
Cerebrum or commonly known as cerebrum which is the largest part of the brain.

In this section there are two parts, namely the right brain and left brain which are also known as the right hemisphere and left hemisphere, which can control the body parts in a crosswise manner.

The left side of the body will be controlled by the right brain, while the left muscles will control the right side of the body.

So if there is damage to the right brain then the left side of the body will be problematic, and vice versa.

Apart from controlling the body, the cerebrum has many other functions, especially considering that the cerebrum is the largest part, which of course has a more difficult task.

In this part of the cerebrum, of course, it is also divided into several existing parts, including:

1. Frontal Lobes

The frontal lobe is located at the front or parallel to the temples and is the largest lobe among the other lobes.

The frontal lobes are the part of the cerebrum that can control behavior, emotions, speech, movement, personality and memory.

This section also functions as an intellectual ability such as the ability to think, motorize, make decisions to solve problems, be able to judge something that is good and bad, and a sense of concern.

2. Parietal Lobe

The parietal lobe is located in the frontal lobe which can provide sensory information such as pain, temperature, touch and others.

In addition, this parietal lobe plays an important role in processing information that has been sent by other parts of the brain. In addition, this parietal lobe can also determine the direction, size and shape.

3. Temporal Lobes

This lobe is usually located on the right and left sides of the brain parallel to the ear.

Which functions to control the visual ability to remember people's faces, hearing and remember a new language.

In addition, this temporal lobe can also regulate emotions and analyze reactions and emotions from other people.

4. Occipital Lobe

The occipital lobe is located at the very back, which functions to control vision and recognize words and reading, as well as other things related to vision.

2. Little Brain (Cerebellum)

Cerebellum Small Brain
The cerebellum or commonly known as the cerebellum is located at the back of the occipital lobe, which has an important function for coordinating body movements and for maintaining balance.

Besides that, it also plays a role in balancing the functions of the right brain and left brain, as well as a role for fine motor movements.

3. Brain Stem

The brain stem or brain stem is located at the back of the cerebellum or cerebellum. This person's trunk is a connective tissue that has an important function to connect the cerebrum with the spinal cord.

This stem is also divided into several parts which of course have other functions, including:

1. Midbrain

This section has a role to regulate vision and also hearing, so that audio and visual will be input and processed through this midbrain.

2. Pons

The pons is the largest part of the brainstem which is located at the bottom of the midbrain, which acts as a connecting part of the brain.

The pons has cranial nerves that play a role in regulating the movement of facial muscles and also vision and sensory system input that will be sent to other parts of the brain.

3. Medulla Oblongata

Medulla oblongata is located at the bottom of the human brain. And the medulla oblongata is the center for regulating the performance of the heart and also the lungs, which play a role in regulating breathing, coughing and sneezing.

4. Thalamus

The part of the brain that has an important function in terms of consciousness, sleep, memory is the thalamus. Where in this section plays a role in sending signals to the brain to process a given input.

And then it will send a signal from the brain to the body's nerves as a form of output.

5. Epithalamus

The epithalamus is a bridge that connects the limbic nerves to the rest of the brain.

6. Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is part of the midbrain which is very small in shape and is located below the thalamus.

The function of the hypothalamus itself is to regulate body temperature, hormone production, regulate sleep patterns, maintain balance, appetite and blood pressure and emotions in the reproductive system.

7. Meninges

Meninges is a coating in the form of a thin membrane that is useful for protecting the spinal cord.

Given that the brain is a collection of tissue cells that are very vulnerable, it requires a coating to protect it.

The meninges are divided into three layers, namely the dura mater which is the outermost and thicker layer.

Arachnoid which is the middle layer is thinner, and the innermost layer of the membrane is the pia mater.

8. Corpus Callosum

The corpus callosum is the connecting bridge between the cerebrum and the cerebellum. The corpus callosum is a network whose role is to coordinate between the right brain and also the left brain, so that they can work in a balanced way.

9. Pituitary Gland

This gland has a very small size which is at the bottom of the brain, which produces hormones to make other glands carry out their functions.

The hormones produced by this gland are growth hormone, FSH, LH, TSH, prolactin, adrenocorticotropin, oxytocin and also antidiuretics.

10. Pineal Gland

Pineal Gland
This gland is located in the ventricles of the brain, whose function still requires further research.

And the function that has been identified is to regulate sleep patterns by producing the hormone metonine.

11. Cranial Nerves

These cranial nerves as a whole have a total of 12 pairs which are located in the neck and head, 1 pair in the cerebrum.

Some of the functions of this nerve are to maintain body balance and also to regulate body organs and help control and move muscles.

12 Limbic System

The limbic system plays a role in controlling fear and anger.

13. Ventricles

This ventricle is a part of the brain that plays a role in producing cerebrospinal fluid, which is divided into 4, namely on the side of the cerebral hemispheres, the back and the middle of the brain.

And each part of the ventricle is connected to each other by a string of tubes to connect the ventricles to one another.

14. Cerebrospinal Fluid

This fluid has the same role as the meninges membrane, which protects the brain and this fluid can also be found in the spinal cord.

It also has an important role in carrying nutrients from the blood to the brain and cleaning up metabolic waste.


Here we have summarized some questions that are commonly asked about the anatomical structure of the human brain:

How Many Nerves are in the Brain?

In one human body there are billions of neurons or nerve cells and there are 13.5 million in the spinal cord and 100 billion in the brain.

What is the Function of the Left Brain?

The left brain has functions related to reason and human logic, reading and is the center of mathematics and writing abilities.

What Are the Disadvantages of the Right Brain?

This right brain has a deficiency which on average is difficult to control emotions and feelings.

Thus, people who are dominant with the right brain will usually find it easier to be in a bad mood or moody.

What Happens If the Left Brain Is Damaged?

The impact if the left brain is damaged such as having an injury, then this can affect the ability to speak and movement on the right side of the body.

So that people who have left brain injuries will have difficulty speaking, but can still understand instructions and generate ideas.


That's a little information about the anatomical structure of the brain in humans and the parts and functions of the brain that you need to know.

Thus the article regarding the anatomical structure of the human brain and don't forget to continue to visit the Infokekinian website.

Because we also have a lot of other information and recommendations which of course will be useful and help current friends.