Trachea Structure And Function In Human Respiration – Do you know the structure and function of the trachea in our body? To find out more fully and clearly, let's see this article until it's finished.

The human trachea is shaped like a large tube and is where we breathe. As a component of the human respiratory system, the trachea serves a variety of purposes.

Understanding the Structure and Function of the Trachea
In this regard, the trachea serves a number of purposes which make it one of the most important components to be considered to maintain proper breathing.

Trachea meaning

The esophagus or trachea is a large tube that leads from the larynx or voice box to the airways or bronchi and then to the lungs.

The trachea is a ring-shaped structure composed of smooth muscle and cartilage that is 10 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. The trachea itself is firm but flexible.

The trachea is located in the center of the neck, distally, and to the right. The mediastinum contains most of the trachea, with the neck containing about one third.

Along with the bronchi, lungs, alveoli, and bronchioles, the trachea is an organ in the lower respiratory tract.

The trachea is organized into 16 to 22 rings made of muscle and cartilage. Air will enter and exit more easily thanks to the ring bones.

Trachea Structure

Trachea is an internal organ located between the lungs, according to the publication Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery.

The trachea, which connects the larynx to the bronchi, is a cartilaginous tube structure through which air enters the lungs.

There is a lot of cartilage in the tracheal structures, including the cricoid bone at the base of the trachea.

The right main bronchus has a sharp angle, and the left main bronchus tends to be flat. There is also fluid at the end of the trachea. The trachea in the female body is often shorter in length than in the male.

Trachea Anatomy

Trachea Anatomy
The trachea is a muscular and cartilaginous tube lined with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium (PCC epithelium).

The trachea is divided into two sections, one in the neck and the other in the mediastinum. In both women and men, the trachea is about 10 cm long. Its transverse diameter is 18mm.

The trachea runs from the 6th cervical vertebra, just below the larynx, to the 4th thoracic vertebra. The right and left main bronchi lie on either side of the trachea.

The lowermost part of the tracheal ring extends inferiorly and posteriorly between the right and left main bronchi to create a well-defined septum known as the carina.

The trachea is elastic, so its length and placement can change depending on the position of the head and neck.

The cartilaginous lining of the trachea consists of 16-2 incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage that open posteriorly (c-shaped cartilage).

Trachea Function

The relevance of tracheal function must be understood once you have a basic understanding of what a trachea is. Some of the functions of the trachea that you should know include the following:

1. Forward Air Going to the Lungs

You must first become aware of the function of the trachea in maintaining airflow to the lungs. As the airways that can enter the lungs during breathing, the trachea has a useful function.

The trachea warms and moistens the air as it enters before finally reaching the lungs.

2. Helps the Digestive System

The trachea helps the digestive system apart from being one of the organs of the respiratory system.

This occurs because the trachea may offer a looser space, allowing the esophageal cartilage to flex more easily.

Ultimately, this situation makes it easier to swallow food. As a result, the digestive system functions more efficiently.

3. Prevent Entry of Foreign Objects

The ability of the trachea to stop foreign bodies from entering the body should be considered as its next function. This is because the walls of the trachea have ciliated hairs and mucus.

Foreign bodies such as germs, viruses or fungi will not be able to enter the tracheal walls as a result of borrowing. Foreign bodies will be brought into the mouth by cilia or small fine hairs.

4. Helps Cough

Helps Cough
The next function of the trachea is to facilitate coughing. Because the tracheal muscles contract over the trachea, the tracheal lumen narrows.

This will allow air to pass through the trachea more quickly. Mucus or other particles can easily be expelled at the end when coughing.

Abnormalities of the Trachea

After a discussion of the many functions of the trachea, we will turn to the potential hazards of the trachea. The trachea can be affected by a number of diseases or conditions, including:

1. Tracheal narrowing

Who would believe that this organ, which is very important for the respiratory system, could constrict? In fact, tracheal narrowing is a very real possibility.

Tracheal stenosis is the term for narrowing of the trachea caused by scar tissue.

2. Tracheal infection

The term "tracheitis" is often used to describe infection of the trachea. Where this infection can affect the function of the trachea and cause unpleasant symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, or fever.

In addition, this infection can affect children and can occur when bacteria are present.

3. Tracheal obstruction

In addition to narrowing, the trachea can also become blocked. In this case, it is often caused by a foreign substance that enters the body, such as food, chemicals, and also an object.

Airflow can become obstructed as a result of this tracheal obstruction. Thus, breathing will be difficult.

4. Tracheomalacia

Tracheomalacia, which can make the trachea very soft, is a second cause of poor tracheal function. The patient may experience breathing problems as a result of this.

This condition can be caused by an infection caused by smoking or by a pre-existing problem.

5. Tracheal cancer

Tracheal cancer is one of the dangerous diseases or conditions that can affect the trachea.

Despite the fact that this disease is still relatively rare, it poses a great danger to human health.

Respiratory symptoms of tracheal cancer patients include coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. In addition, tracheal cancer patients may have difficulty swallowing and coughing up blood.

It would be best to consult a doctor immediately if you notice these symptoms. Doctors can perform a variety of medical procedures, including the following:

  1. MRI test
  2. Bronchoscopy
  3. Chest X-ray

6. Tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF)

Tracheal-Esophageal Fistula
Tracheoesophageal fistula, also known as TEF, is a disease that affects the trachea.

Disease is a condition where there is a single channel that connects the trachea to the esophagus.

Usually, an inherited cause is to blame for this. Therefore, patients with TEF are particularly susceptible to pulmonary aspiration.

Given that food that enters the esophagus will travel through the trachea.

About the Tracheal Donor

Medical science began to develop as a result of disorders and health problems that compromise the function of the trachea.

According to a report from the journal Diagnosis and Management of Tracheal Neoplasms, it is possible to find a donor within the trachea. Tracheal replacement can be done in 4 different ways, including:

  1. Lymphoid transplant
  2. Reconstruction using autologous tissue
  3. Bioprosthetics
  4. Engineering for networks.

However, this is still being carried out by further research and observation, before carrying out or taking this medical action.


Here we have summarized some commonly asked questions around Tracheal structure and function:

What is the function of the trachea in the human respiratory organ?

One of the functions of the trachea is as a link in the human respiratory system.

What are the Characteristics of the Trachea?

The following are the characteristics of the trachea:

  1. Composed of 20 cartilage rings
  2. Lined with ciliated epithelium
  3. There are two branches that form the bronchi.


That's a little information about the structure and function of the trachea in the human respiratory system.

Given the very important function of the trachea in the body, it is necessary to always keep it healthy to prevent various conditions that can harm your overall health.