Types of Biotic Components: Definition, Functions and Roles

InfoKekinian.com – Hi, Current Friends! On this occasion, we will invite you to get to know the types of biotic components that make up an ecosystem along with abiotic components.

In an ecosystem there are components that are interconnected with each other.

abiotic components, also known as dead components, and biotic components, sometimes known as living components, are the two categories that these components fall under.

What are biotic components
Both earnestly advocate for the success of the ecosystem. In the following, we will explain about types of biotic components or living things and examples. So, stay tuned!

What are Biotic Components?

The biotic component is an ecosystem component consisting of living things. Biotic components come in many forms, including humans, plants, animals, and even microorganisms.

In order to better understand the idea of food chains in ecosystems and the environment, it is important to study the biotic components.

Each biotic element has a specific purpose in maintaining the ecosystem structure.

The dominant biotic component, humans, greatly influences the growth, extinction, or spread of other biotic components.

Animal or plant life depends on humans. Living organisms or biotic components exist in a particular ecosystem.

Habitat is a location or setting that allows for the survival and reproduction of certain living things.

Functions of Biotics

According to their size, living things are classified as either microbes or macroorganisms. Microorganisms are very small creatures.

So you need a tool, especially a magnifying glass, to observe it. Meanwhile, large decomposers such as rats, cockroaches, and worms are macroorganisms.

Living things can be categorized into one of three groups based on their role and purpose.

Biotic Components Based on Their Roles and Functions

Biotic Components Based on Their Roles and Functions
Zebras, grass and trees that live in the same ecosystem and are interdependent are examples of biotic components.

Every living thing has a unique task and purpose known as nisia.

Based on nisia, or roles and functions, biotic components are categorized into four types of living organisms. The following are the types of biotic components based on their function:

1. Manufacturer

Producer is the biotic component or the highest level of living things. This is so that producers can make enough food to meet their own needs.

Organisms that can combine inorganic (material without living things) with organic to make their own food are another example of producers.

Autotrophs are producers because they need sunlight to produce food.

Green plants with chlorophyll often occupy the highest rung of the ladder of living organisms, sometimes known as producers.

By producing their own food through the process of photosynthesis, green plants are able to meet their needs.

Other examples of biotic components used by manufacturers include the following:

  1. Phytoplankton, or plants that can produce their own food in large quantities, are a food source for animals in both fresh and sea water
  2. Water producers are tiny, floating members of the protist family
  3. Algae are considered autotrophic organisms without organs like other plants
  4. Moss
  5. Blue-green algae
  6. Various kinds of bacteria.

2. Consumers

In contrast to producers, organisms made of these components cannot make their own food and must depend on other organisms for survival.

These living entities, known as heterotrophs, are usually a collection of animals.

In addition, because they still rely on other living things to meet their nutritional needs, humans, fungi, and microbes are all consumer groups.

Based on their eating habits, consumers can be categorized into three groups, including:

  1. Living things that eat plants are called herbivores. Rabbits, cows, goats, and so on are some examples. These types of living things are often referred to as primary consumers.
  2. Living things called carnivores consume the flesh of animals of other species. Carnivores are the second level of living things, also referred to as second level consumers. Tigers, lions, crocodiles and other animals are examples.
  3. Living things that are classified as omnivores because they consume plants and meat. Humans, rats, pigs, chickens and other animals are examples. Living things like this, especially humans, are called top consumers.

Consumers are categorized into three groups according to their level as follows:

  1. Consumers who eat directly from producers are considered primary consumers. These primary consumers include omnivores and all types of herbivores. Goats, cows, caterpillars, mice, are some examples.
  2. Consumers who consume primary consumers are referred to as secondary consumers. Many species of carnivores and omnivores, including tigers, cheetahs, chickens, frogs, snakes, pangolins and others, are among these secondary consumers.
  3. Consumers that eat secondary consumers are called tertiary consumers. Carnivores and omnivores form the tertiary consumer group. Eagles, sharks, octopuses and other animals are examples.

The bond between producers and consumers cannot be broken because they are interdependent on one another. In other words, consumers have influence in whether producers survive or not.

For example, plants would need to cycle the carbon dioxide released by humans and animals.

The process of photosynthesis benefits from the utilization of carbon dioxide. Consumers, meanwhile, depend on producers for their food.

3. Decomposer

Decomposer Components
Living things that eat other living things that have been destroyed are also called decomposers or decomposers.

Decomposers are living things or organisms that perform certain tasks in order to break down waste or leftover food after living things die.

Decomposers are also known as decomposers because they allow organic matter to break down and then be recycled to create nutrients.

Decomposers are organisms that are often small in size and are found in soil, water or air. Biological examples include bacteria and fungi.

Although small, these decomposer components are still important for the survival of life on Earth and the development of healthy habitats or ecosystems.

4. Detrivores

Detrivores are various organisms or living things that feed on organic particles, often known as detritus which contain living matter.

Decomposition of decaying plant or animal tissue is a biotic component of the type of detritus. Detritus can be found in living things or organisms such as:

  1. Snails, which are organisms with shells and coils when they are adults
  2. Tubeworms are known as earthworms, which have a segmented body
  3. Animals that live at night and have two pairs of legs on each body segment are known as centipedes which are venomous animals.
  4. The segmented animal known as the keluwing, also known as the leue or tetinggi, contains about 30 segments, each with two legs. This creature is a kind of millipede.
  5. Trepangs, sometimes known as sea cucumbers, are edible invertebrates that can be found in almost all bodies of water, but are most common in the western Pacific and Indian seas.

Ecosystem Compiler Components

An ecosystem is an inter-community unit that builds mutually interacting or reciprocal relationships with one another.

Usually this ecosystem is composed of biotic components and abiotic components. Where the biotic component itself consists of producers, consumers, and decomposers.

While the abiotic components are composed of solar energy, wind, minerals, water, oxygen, and also carbon dioxide.

In this ecosystem there will usually be units of living things, which can be called individuals, populations, and also communities.

Where this individual is a unit of a single living thing, while the population is a collection of individuals of the same type with a certain area and time.

And the community is a collection of populations that are certainly different and live in a certain place and time.

Examples of Biotic Components

Examples of Biotic Components
Humans are one of the most influential factors in the ecosystem. In 2016, biologists around the world decided and declared, if the earth has entered a new geological era.

This is known as the "Anthropocene", where the term is taken from the word "anthropo" which means human and "cene" which means "new", which comes from Greek.

The major changes experienced by this global ecosystem are equivalent to the effects of climate change events that are different in the past from the asteroid impact, which is the effect of human technology that determines this anthropocene era.

With human activities such as burning wood, oil, coal, which released millions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere in just a few centuries, which resulted in changes to the earth's carbon cycle.

In the same period of time, humans also cut down almost half of all the forests on this earth.

In fact, this tree's role is to take carbon dioxide in the air and then put it back into the plant, then return it again in the form of oxygen.

In addition, humans have begun to release many new substances, such as plastic, radioactive materials, heavy metals, into the air, oceans and soil.

So that this is the beginning of climate change that is so fast, extreme, and mass extinction.

Because species disappeared faster than the asteroid impact killed the dinosaurs.


Here we have summarized some frequently asked questions:

What is Biotic?

It is referred to as a biotic component because the environmental components consist of living things, which can be classified based on their types such as groups of humans, plants and animals.

Does the Food Chain Include Biotics?

The answer is yes, it is. This is because biotic means as living things, so that the food chain is also included in biotic or living things.


That's a little information about the meaning, characteristics and types of biotic components that you need to know, because these components make up ecosystems.

And we can conclude that these biotic components have four categories, such as producers, consumers, decomposers, and detrivores.

To build a healthy, beneficial and sustainable ecosystem, all biotic components are interrelated and depend on one another.

Each biotic element, or living thing, has a specific purpose in providing food to maintain a healthy ecosystem.