Definition and Principles of Democracy – What would you answer if you were asked questions about the meaning and principles of democracy? No need to be confused, because you can get the answer through this article.

Democracy comes from the Greek word democracy. Democracy is defined as the rule of the people. In general, democracy is divided into two words.

The first is Demos, which means people. The second is kratos, which means power or strength.

Definition of Democracy According to Experts

Democracy includes economic, social and cultural situations in which political freedoms are freely or equally exercised.

In general, democracy is defined as a form of government in which every citizen has equal and balanced rights in determining and choosing a decision that will later have an impact on the lives of the people or citizens.

The notion of democracy can also be interpreted as the highest form of power held by the people.

Citizens can participate in this democracy, both directly and through representatives, in terms of the implementation of formulation, development, and also the process of drafting laws.

So, to clarify your understanding of democracy, the following will explain the meaning of democracy and its various aspects so that it can provide its own benefits for readers.

Definition of Democracy According to Experts

According to some experts, the following are some definitions of democracy:

1. According to Abraham Lincoln, democracy is a system of government formed from the people, by the people, and for the people themselves.

2. According to Charles Costello, democracy is a social and political system of government in which government power is limited by law and culture and all individual rights are protected from the color of the state itself.

3. Meanwhile, according to Hans Kelsen, democracy is a government organized and implemented by the people and for the people.

The executors of state power are people's representatives who are elected by the people after there is a belief that their needs will be fulfilled in the rules that have been or will be determined by the people's representatives in relation to their implementation. from state power.

Types of Democracy

Types of Democracy

Democracy is divided into several types. Among the various types of democracy in question are as follows:

Types of Democracy Based on Focus of Attention

The first type of democracy is focus democracy. This type of democracy is subdivided as follows:

  1. Formal democracy is democracy that is limited to focusing on politics by ignoring the gaps in politics itself.
  2. Material democracy is democracy with a focus on the economy but does not reduce political inequality.
  3. A mixed democracy is a democracy that combines formal democracy and material democracy.

Types of Democracy Based on the Distribution of the Will of the People

Democracy based on the will of the people is the next type of democracy. Democracy is further divided into two types:

  1. Direct democracy, or direct democracy as it is known in English. Direct democracy is a type of democracy in which the people determine and vote for certain decisions for the country. As an example, consider elections or general elections.
  2. Indirect democracy, also known as indirect democracy in English, is a type of democracy in which all citizens participate in decision-making.

Provisions made by people's representatives such as the DPR, DPD, DPRD, and so on are examples of this type of democracy.

Democracy characteristics

Democracy has its own characteristics. The following are some of the characteristics of a democratically run country:

  1. Every decision made or determined by the government is in accordance with the wishes and needs of all or every people.
  2. There are also constitutional characteristics that have been compiled and recorded in the laws of a country related to the will of power or the interests of the people.
  3. Has a representative nature where the sovereignty and power of the people themselves are represented when managing the interests of the state by the people who are elected and determined by the people themselves.
  4. All political activities or activities are carried out in choosing which party will be entrusted with running the wheels of government.

Democracy characteristics

The distinctive feature of a party is that the party is actually only a medium or means as an element as well as an applied element of the democratic system itself.

Principles of Democracy

Democracy also has several important principles in it. The following are some of the principles of the existing democratic system:

  1. The existence of a freedom that has been agreed upon, recognized and approved by every citizen
  2. The existence of the participation of each color of the State in carrying out and also determining a decision that is political in nature
  3. There is equality and justice for every citizen
  4. Each color of the State has similarities and also equality in political practice

Advantages and Disadvantages of Democracy

Democracy does not only have advantages and disadvantages, but also disadvantages. Thus, everyone must understand what are the advantages and disadvantages when a democratic system is implemented in a particular country or institution.

The following is an explanation regarding the advantages and disadvantages of democracy that can be used as material for consideration:

Advantages or Advantages of a Democratic System

  1. The existence of equal rights causes every member of society to be allowed or permitted to take part in the political field
  2. Acceptance of a power is determined based on the voice or will of the people
  3. The democratic system can also avoid the monopoly of power in the hands of the authorities

Weaknesses or Weaknesses of the Democratic System

People's trust in the authorities is very easy to shake because of various negative impacts such as the media which does not have an objective attitude or even has a subjective tendency towards certain information or news.

With regard to equal rights, it will often be considered unfair because it is based on the opinion of experts that everyone has different political understandings, aka they cannot be exactly the same.

The concentration or focus of the incumbent government is diminishing due to the approach of the upcoming general election.

Building Democracy

With regard to efforts to build democracy, this country has happened to have experienced several transitions from so-called pseudo-democracy in the New Order era to real democracy.

Building Democracy

In the last few decades, the State has experienced various advances in the field of democracy.

Each of the heads of state institutions agrees that the key to success in building democracy is to use the following four pillars of nationality:

  1. Pancasila
  2. 1945 Constitution
  3. Bhinneka Stays Ika

This was undoubtedly the foundation laid with great sacrifice by the heroes of this country.

The existence of the four pillars initiated by the founding fathers of this nation is expected to be able to make every leader in state institutions have the ability and ability to overcome and also try to solve the problems that this nation is currently experiencing.

And of course, everyone hopes that everything will run smoothly so that the living conditions of the nation and state will be very harmonious.

No matter how good the rules are, if all parties are reluctant to obey and comply with these rules, then in the end it will not be perfect.

On the other hand, because the rules are simple but followed by all parties, benefit and benefit will be intertwined.

This country really needs a clean government through various understandings, as well as the implementation of the noble values of the Indonesian people which are enshrined in the four pillars of nationality.

Thus, if the entire community and government ranks want to practice it properly and sincerely, then the presence of these four pillars is sufficient.

As a result, Indonesia will almost certainly succeed in becoming a large, fully sovereign country in the future.

In most of today's modern countries, where every citizen has one power to be sovereign.

But political power is exercised indirectly through the DPR or representatives, this is referred to as representative democracy.

The concept of representative democracy emerged from institutions in the form of ideas that emerged during the Renaissance or Enlightenment. It also happens to coincide with the French and United States Revolutions.

Abuse of Democracy

A government exists in a democratic system. It can be ensured that all citizens have the same rights and opportunities.

Of course, in a democracy, it doesn't recognize ethnicity, gender, social status, or certain groups. This is because democracy itself means "of the people, by the people, and for the people".

In a democratic system itself, the people play an important role in having the authority to make decisions.

There is no type of government decision that should be made without the participation of the people.

Abuse of Democracy

Meanwhile, the aims and objectives of democracy are to assist a state that is sovereign over the people in forming a government that is legitimate and desired by the majority of the people.

Due to its system of government, the United States is considered the most democratic country in the world.

The United States has the highest degree of freedom in the farming nation. For example, social and cultural life in that country is very free.

By mastering the science of democracy properly and precisely, the United States is now beginning to voice this understanding to all corners of the world.

Some have successfully implemented a government system. However, there are those that don't work when the concept of democracy is applied in other countries.

It is also known that the State of Indonesia is known for its democratic system of government which appears to deify the people.

As a result, a fundamental question arises: Has this country managed to properly implement the concept of democracy?

In terms of the system, it appears that the country's current democratic system has been successful. But when looking at the facts on the ground, it is still far from the term democracy.

For example, general elections or regional head elections are a common form of implementing democracy in this country. Democratic parties are usually used to choose the best leader who will be a role model.

However, democratic parties often cause the emergence of various bad deviations in the continuation process.

The following are some violations that are often committed and found in the Indonesian democratic process:

Money Politics

The first form of abuse of democracy is the practice of money politics. This is a new tradition that will continue to be carried out and further processed.

Usually, this practice is carried out by preying on people in need. They will then become the main target for those interested.

For example, there are prospective leaders who freely provide money or other basic materials to buy people's votes.


When used, this is a very dangerous and threatening method. For example, someone on the part of a potential leader may carry out acts of intimidation against people or residents in order to persuade them to elect a potential leader. This is of course contrary to the principles of democracy.

Introduction During the campaign

Campaigning should be prohibited when it is not campaign time, according to various rules governing the electoral process.

This affects the type of abuse that is often done. There are many ways to use it, including placing banners and billboards on the street, and using memes on social media.

In fact, it is not uncommon to find potential leaders who start by visiting several locations.

Negative Campaign

The existence of a negative campaign is the next step for fraud or abuse of democracy.

Negative Campaign

The lack of socialization of prospective leaders to the public, especially the general public, is the cause of this negative campaign.

As a result, the general public has a poor understanding of the importance of information media. As a result, he only obeys people who happen to be his figure.

Negative campaign activities can result in the emergence of slander that can harm the integrity of certain regions, as well as the ability to raise issues that can bring down political opponents as candidates.

Democratic countries

Democracy is also defined as a form of government created by the people, for the people, and by the people.

Because, in the past, when the government system made life difficult for the people, they did not consider supporting the government system.

However, history has shown that democracy has been implemented into a political system that is widely used in many countries in the world.

This is due to the fact that democracy promotes the idea of a just and transparent system.

Even now and then, more and more countries are turning to democratic systems of government.

Indonesia is also a country with a democratic system that ranks third in the world.

It is determined by the number of inhabitants or people a country belongs to. And the following is information about several democratic countries that will be reviewed:


In second place is India, which has the largest population in the world. As a result, this country eventually became the largest democracy in the world.

Meanwhile, the Indian system is a liberal democratic system. In 2014, the country held its first general election.

You can imagine how the picture will be after the election in the country with the most population. However, because it uses the most efficient system, the process runs smoothly, safely and safely.

United States of America

The United States is the next country to implement a democratic system. This country is commonly referred to as the Land of Uncle Sam.

The United States is the oldest country to adopt a democratic system, so the experience is greater.

The journey of the democratic system implemented in the United States itself has sometimes gone well, and now it has become one of the world's superpowers.

Furthermore, the United States is included in the list of currently the most powerful countries in the world. The number of people who voted in the elections is estimated at around 250 million, indicating that the people there are very enthusiastic.


In terms of holding elections in Indonesia, the Indonesian government is increasingly successful. This is shown by the implementation of elections that run safely, orderly and smoothly.

Of course this is not ideal when compared to India where the system is very efficient. However, political movements are increasing every year. The number of voters in the 2014 election reached 190 million.

And it is hoped that this figure will continue to increase from time to time. In addition, more and more youth are getting the right to vote.


Brazil is the country with the highest population density on the South American continent. Brazil has a population of around 200 million people.

Brazil holds elections every four years. This is clearly not the case in Indonesia, where the implementation is carried out every five years.


Pakistan is the next country to embrace the ideology of democracy. Pakistan is an Islamic country that ranks second in population after Indonesia.

The country which is the fifth largest country also adheres to a democratic system. The government of the Islamic republic is a concept that is adhered to by this country. However, the country's general election still adheres to a democratic system.


Nigeria is a country in Africa, more specifically in the western part of the continent. This country is located on the continent of Africa and has a large population. Federal Republic of Nigeria is a concept used in this country.

Examples of Implementation or Implementation of Democracy

Examples of Implementation or Implementation of Democracy

Democracy is a vital concept that can be applied in various fields of life. Not only at the federal level, but also at the most basic level like family and so on. The following are some examples of democracy in action:

1. Examples of Implementation of Family Democracy

Because the application of democracy is so broad, it cannot be limited to the ranks of the state and government.

It can also be used in families or organizations. Of course, the application and practice of democratic culture in the family environment must be adapted to certain family circumstances, habits and agreements. As an example:

  1. All family members have an obligation to apply justice impartially.
  2. All family members have the right to be accompanied by the media in conveying criticism and suggestions for the peace and welfare of the family.
  3. Each family member is responsible for carrying out their responsibilities within the family sphere.
  4. Every member of the family owes one another to love and respect one another.
  5. If necessary, family gatherings or gatherings are required.
  6. Keep track of each task and responsibility.
  7. Willing to make the father as the head of the family
  8. Positioning each family member according to their respective roles
  9. Deliberation and consensus are used to overcome and solve a problem.
  10. Each family member must be tolerant of differences of opinion.
  11. Prioritizing family problems over personal problems

2. Examples of the Implementation of Democracy in Schools

Apart from being applicable on the smallest scale, namely the family, democracy is also important in schools. The following are some ideas for implementing democracy in the school environment:

  1. Deliberation is used to determine the organization of the school or class.
  2. Carry out the distribution of picket tasks in a fair and equitable manner.
  3. Take turns holding ceremonies
  4. Participate in various school sponsored activities.
  5. Conduct socialization and build positive relationships between teachers and students in the school environment.
  6. Propose ideas and opinions to school officials so that they progress and develop.
  7. At school, write your thoughts or opinions on the wall magazine.
  8. Timely payment of certain tuition or school fees
  9. Arrive at school on time.
  10. Consider other people's points of view.

3. Examples of Implementation of Democracy in Society

Besides being able to apply democracy in the family or school environment, democracy can also be applied in society. Following are some examples of its use:

  1. Protect each other, collaborate, and maintain peace in society.
  2. Collaboration in communicating ideas for the benefit of community development
  3. Maintain an attitude of tolerance towards one another.
  4. Able to respect the views of others
  5. Able to convey criticism or opinion for the greater good
  6. Manage existing funds properly and correctly.
  7. Trying to reach a consensus on a solution to a particular problem
  8. Actively participate in community contributions.

Indonesian Democracy in the Digital Age

Indonesia has been a democracy since its independence and continues to be so today.

This began with democracy under Sukarno, which was followed by Pancasila democracy under Suharto.

He also served as President of Indonesia for many years. Then, after the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998, true democracy emerged.

Starting with the election of regional heads or presidents where the people are represented fairly and collectively. Democracy has existed in this country for a long time. And, of course, there are a lot of difficulties.

However, because the country is resilient, the challenges facing democracy can be overcome.

Of course it is not wrong if several American research institutions, such as Freedom House, mention Indonesia as one of the most successful developing countries in implementing a democratic system.

And, in this day and age, democracy in Indonesia takes place in a new area known as the digital era.

This era emerged as a result of very rapid technological advances. Moreover, coupled with the rapid development of information and communication.

The emergence of this era certainly has a huge impact on all aspects of human life, including the democratic system.

According to survey results presented by Bloomberg Tv Indonesia, there are 70 users of social media and chat platforms in Indonesia, including Wa, Line, Path, BBM, Twitter, Facebook, and others. This is undoubtedly extraordinary for life.

Internet users can then easily obtain developing information. Obtaining information about current government performance is one example.

Finally, without adequate filters, many internet users provide input, criticism, suggestions, and even insults.

Indeed, anyone can speak up, whether they are experts or experts in their field, or those who are not experts and don't know anything.

This is very natural and contributes to the impact of the digital era which is more focused on freedom. However, besides having a negative impact, the digital era also has a positive impact on life.

Surprisingly, social media users in Indonesia are not only young people, but also many others, including government officials.

Indeed, it is not uncommon for these officials to speak on behalf of the government, among other things. It should also be noted that, in this digital era, many young people and women have started to exercise their right to vote, and there has been an increase.

Ono expressed his patriotism for Indonesia. They have rights in cyberspace that they do not have as people who influence the sovereignty of the State.

However, it would be better if the ease of use of existing communication tools can be used as a medium for various positive activities.

Also, provide feedback to the government on their performance in a polite and civilized manner.


That's a little information about the meaning and principles of democracy which can be concluded, that democracy is defined as a form of government created by the people and for the people.

Where Indonesia is also a country with a democratic system which ranks third in the world, followed by Pakistan which is an Islamic country which ranks second in population after Indonesia.

Then there are India and the United States of America which are the oldest countries that adhere to the decration system and Nigeria is a country located on the African continent and has a large population.

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